Glossary

3' (3-prime)search for term

A term that identifies one end of a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule. The 3' end is that end of the molecule which terminates in a 3' phosphate group. The 3' direction is the direction toward the 3' end. Nucleic acid sequences are written with the 5' end to the left and the 3' end to the right, in reference to the direction of DNA synthesis during replication (from 5' to 3'), RNA synthesis during transcription (from 5' to 3'), and the reading of mRNA sequence (from 5' to 3') during translation.

3' UTRsearch for term

3' Untranslated Region. That portion of an mRNA from the 3' end to the position of the last codon used in translation. See also 5' UTR.

5' (5-prime)search for term

A term that identifies one end of a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule. The 5' end is that end of the molecule which terminates in a 5' phosphate group. The 5' direction is the direction toward the 5' end. Nucleic acid sequences are written with the 5' end to the left and the 3' end to the right, in reference to the direction of DNA synthesis during replication (from 5' to 3'), RNA synthesis during transcription (from 5' to 3'), and the reading of mRNA sequence (from 5' to 3') during translation.

5' UTRsearch for term

5' Untranslated Region. That portion of an mRNA from the 5' end to the position of the first codon used in translation. See also 3' UTR.

Ab initiosearch for term

Formulated without experimental data. Latin. From the beginning.

Accession IDsearch for term

A unique alphanumeric character string that is used to unambiguously identify a particular record in a database. Examples include MGI accession IDs, GenBank accession IDs, and PubMed accession IDs.

Adenine (A)search for term

A purine base that is a component of nucleotides and thus a normal component of DNA and RNA. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Adenocarcinomasearch for term

A common cancer characterized by the presence of malignant glandular cells. Morphologically, adenocarcinomas are classified according to the growth pattern (e.g., papillary, alveolar) or according to the secreting product (e.g., mucinous, serous). Representative examples of adenocarcinoma are ductal and lobular breast carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma), colon adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma.

Adenovirussearch for term

A group of DNA containing viruses which infect mammals and are capable of causing respiratory disease, including one form of the common cold.

Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionarysearch for term

A controlled vocabulary providing standardized nomenclature for anatomical structures in the postnatal mouse (Theiler stage 28). See the Open Biological Ontologies (OBO) site for further information about structured, shared vocabularies for use within genomic and proteomic domains.

Agonistsearch for term

An agent that has affinity for a receptor and intrinsic activity at that receptor.

Agoutisearch for term

A characteristic of the coat color of wild-type mice and other mammals in which an individual hair has black pigment (eumelanin) at the tip and the base, and a band of yellow pigment (phaeomelanin) in the middle. This coloration has the effect of softening the visual outline of a mammal in the wild, making it harder to see than an animal of solid color.

Aliassearch for term

An alternative symbol or name for part of the sequence of a known gene that resembles names for other anonymous DNA segments. For example, D6Mit236 is an alias for Cftr.

Allelesearch for term

One of the variant forms of a gene, differing from other forms in its nucleotide sequence.

Allele Combinationsearch for term

A designation of the specific alleles present on the two homologous chromosomes for all relevant loci of a mouse (i.e., all allele pairs of a genotype). An allele combination can be composed of one or more allele pairs.

Allele Namesearch for term

An "allele name" is a word or phrase that uniquely identifies an allele of a given gene. The allele name has an abbreviation that is the allele symbol added as a superscript to the gene symbol.

Allele Pairsearch for term

A designation of the specific alleles present on the two homologous chromosomes for a given locus.

Allele Symbolsearch for term

An allele symbol is a unique abbreviation for the allele name. Allele symbols take the form of superscripts added to the gene symbol.

Allele Typesearch for term

A classification of alleles. Biologically, allele types represent how mutant alleles arose (for example, spontaneous, chemically induced, and so on).

Allograftsearch for term

A graft transferred from a donor of one species to a recipient of the same species but different genetic makeup.

Alternative Splicingsearch for term

The production of two or more distinct mRNAs from RNA transcripts having the same sequence via differences in splicing (by the choice of different exons).

Amino Acidsearch for term

A molecule of the general formula NH2-CHR-COOH, where "R" is one of a number of different side chains. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. The sixty-four codons of the genetic code allow the use of twenty different amino acids (the primary amino acids) in the synthesis of proteins. Other nonprimary amino acids occur in proteins by enzymatic modification of amino acids in mature proteins, and as metabolic intermediates. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Amino Terminussearch for term

A term that identifies one end of a protein molecule. The amino terminus is that end of the molecule which terminates in a free amino group.

Amorphic Mutationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which the altered gene product lacks the molecular function of the wild-type gene. Synonyms: Loss-of-function Mutation, Null Mutation.

Amplificationsearch for term

An increase in the number of copies of a specific DNA fragment; can be in vivo or in vitro.

Ancestorsearch for term

This term refers to terms in a hierarchical controlled vocabulary such as those containing Gene Ontology (GO), Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, and Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary terms. An "ancestor" of a term is a term any number of levels above it in the hierarchy from which it is descended. For example, the GO term enzyme [GO:0003824] is an ancestor to the GO term alcohol dehydrogenase [GO:0004022].

Aneuploidsearch for term

Not euploid.

Angiogenesissearch for term

Development of new blood vessels.

Animal Husbandrysearch for term

The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.

Anonymous DNA segmentsearch for term

A segment of DNA not known to correspond to a named gene that can be used as a marker in the construction of genetic maps.

anti-bacterial GSTsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-bacterial GST
Label:
Clone: PIP
Isotype: Armenain hamster Ig
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: control Ig
Treatment / Staining Regime: control Ig
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-BrdUsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-BrdU
Label: FITC
Clone: 3D4
Isotype: Mouse IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 51-33284X
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-GFPsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-GFP
Label: AlexaFlour 647
Clone: FM264G
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 338005
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-Hamster IgGsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-Hamster IgG
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: PE
Clone: Poly4055
Isotype: Goat
Type: commerciai
Source: BioLegend 405506
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-human CD1bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-human CD1b
Label: FITC
Clone: M-T101
Isotype: Mouse IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 555969
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-human CD1bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-human CD1b
Label: none
Clone: M-T101
Isotype: Mouse IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 555968
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-human IFNGRalpha / CD119search for term

Antibody against:anti-human IFNGRalpha / CD119
Label: none
Clone: GIR-208
Isotype: Mouse IgG1, k
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: control Ig
Treatment / Staining Regime: isotype control - match dose
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-human IL-10R Betasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-human IL-10R Beta
Label: Biotin
Clone:
Isotype: goat IgG
Type: commercial
Source: R and D systems BAF874
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD16/32search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD16/32
Label: Biotin
Clone: 2.4G2
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01242D, new = 553143
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse 34search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse 34
Label: FITC
Clone: RAM34
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553733
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD103search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD103
Label: PerCP-Cy5.5
Clone: clone 2E7
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 121416
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD106 / VCAM-1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD106 / VCAM-1
Label: FITC
Clone: 429/MVCAM.A
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01814D, new = 553332
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD107a / LAMP-1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD107a / LAMP-1
Label: FITC
Clone: 1D4B
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 121605
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD117search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD117
Label: PE
Clone: 2B8
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 105807
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD119 IFNgR alphasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD119 IFNgR alpha
Label: Biotin
Clone: GR20
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 558771
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD11bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD11b
Label: Biotin
Clone: M1/70
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553309
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD11bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD11b
Label: FITC
Clone: M1/70
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 101206
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD11bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD11b
Label: PE
Clone: M1/70
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 101208
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD11bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD11b
Label: APC
Clone: M1/70
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: comnercial
Source: BioLegend 101212
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD11csearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD11c
Label: PE
Clone: HL3
Isotype: Hamster IgG1
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553802
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD11csearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD11c
Label: APC
Clone: N418
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 117310
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD11csearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD11c
Label: Biotin
Clone: N418
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 117304
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD11csearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD11c
Label: APC
Clone: HL3
Isotype: Hamster IgG1
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 550261
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD11csearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD11c
Label: FITC
Clone: N418
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 117306
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD122 / IL-2R Betasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD122 / IL-2R Beta
Label: PE
Clone: TM-Beta1
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553362
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD122 / IL-2R Betasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD122 / IL-2R Beta
Label: FITC
Clone: TM-Beta1
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553361
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD127 / IL-7Rasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD127 / IL-7Ra
Label: FITC
Clone: A7R34
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: eBiosciences 11-1271-82
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD137 / 4-1BBsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD137 / 4-1BB
Label: PE
Clone: 17B5
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience 12-1371-83
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD14search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD14
Label: PerCP-Cy5.5
Clone: Sa14-2
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 123314
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD14search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD14
Label: PE
Clone: Sa14-2
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 123309
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD152search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD152
Label: PE
Clone: UC10-4B9
Isotype: HamsterIgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 106306
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD16/32search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD16/32
Label: PE
Clone: 93
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, l
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 101307
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD16/32search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD16/32
Label: none
Clone: 2.4G2
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553142
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD172a / SIRPasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD172a / SIRPa
Label: APC
Clone: P84
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 560106
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD178 / FasLsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD178 / FasL
Label: PE
Clone: MFL3
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 106606
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD1dsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD1d
Label: none
Clone: 1B1
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 09901D, new = 553843
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD1dsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD1d
Label: none (no azide / low endotoxin)
Clone: 1B1
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 559438
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD1dsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD1d
Label: PE
Clone: 1B1
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553846
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD1dsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD1d
Label: FITC
Clone: 1B1
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553845
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD2 / LFAsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD2 / LFA
Label: Biotin
Clone: RM2-5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, lambda
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01172D, new = 553110
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD205 / DEC205search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD205 / DEC205
Label: FITC
Clone: NLDC-145
Isotype: Rat IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: Cedarlane CL89145F
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD210/ IL-10Rsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD210/ IL-10R
Label: PE
Clone: 1B1.3A
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 559914
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD24search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD24
Label: PerCP-Cy5.5
Clone: M1/69
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 101823
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD24search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD24
Label: FITC
Clone: M1/69
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 101805
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD24search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD24
Label: PE/Cy7
Clone: M1/69
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 101821
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD24 / HASsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD24 / HAS
Label: Biotin
Clone: M1/69
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01572D, new= 553260
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD24 / HSAsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD24 / HSA
Label: Biotin
Clone: 30-F1
Isotype: Rat IgG2c, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 555296
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD25search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD25
Label: PE
Clone: PC61
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 102008
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD25search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD25
Label: PE
Clone: 7D4
Isotype: Rat IgM, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 558642
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD274 / PD-L1 / B7-H1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD274 / PD-L1 / B7-H1
Label: PE
Clone: MIH5
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, l
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience 12-5982-83
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD282 / TLR2search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD282 / TLR2
Label: FITC
Clone: T2.5
Isotype: Mouse IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 121805
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD284 / TLR4/MD2search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD284 / TLR4/MD2
Label: PE
Clone: MTS510
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 117605
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD31search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD31
Label: PE
Clone: MEC13.3
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 102508
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD314 / NKG2Dsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD314 / NKG2D
Label: PE
Clone: C7
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 115705
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD335 / NKp46search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD335 / NKp46
Label: PE
Clone: 29A1.4
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience 12-3351-82
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD335 / NKp46search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD335 / NKp46
Label: APC
Clone: 29A1.4
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 137607
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD3esearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD3e
Label: FITC
Clone: 145-2C11
Isotype: Hamnster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 100306
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD3esearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD3e
Label: PE
Clone: 145-2C11
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 100308
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD3esearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD3e
Label: APC
Clone: 145-2C11
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 100312
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD4search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD4
Label: APC
Clone: GK1.5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 100412
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD4search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD4
Label: none
Clone: GK1.5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: depletion in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 750 ug i.p. on day -1, and 250 ug weekly maintenance dose.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD4search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD4
Label: PE
Clone: RM4-5
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 100512
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD4search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD4
Label: FITC
Clone: GK1.5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 100406
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD4search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD4
Label: PE
Clone: CT-CD4
Isotype: Rat IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: Caltag RM2504
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD40search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD40
Label: FITC
Clone: HM40-3
Isotype: Hamster IgM, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 09404D
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD40search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD40
Label: PE
Clone: 1C10
Isotype: Rat IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 102806
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD43search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD43
Label: PE
Clone: S7
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01605B
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD43search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD43
Label: FITC
Clone: S7
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01604D
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD44search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD44
Label: APC
Clone: IM7
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 103012
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD44search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD44
Label: FITC
Clone: IM7
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 103006
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD44search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD44
Label: PE
Clone: IM7
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 103008
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD45search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD45
Label: PE
Clone: 30-F11
Isotype: Rat IgG2b,k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 102105
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD45 / LCAsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD45 / LCA
Label: CyChrome
Clone: 30-F11
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01118A, new = 553082
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD45.2search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD45.2
Label: FITC
Clone: 104
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 109806
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD45.2search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD45.2
Label: PE
Clone: 104
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 109808
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD45R/B220search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD45R/B220
Label: FITC
Clone: RA3-6B2
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 103206
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD45R/B220search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD45R/B220
Label: PE
Clone: RA3-6B2
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 103208
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD45R/B220search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD45R/B220
Label: PE/Cy5
Clone: RA3-6B2
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 103210
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD45R/B220search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD45R/B220
Label: none
Clone: RA3-6B2
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01121D, new = 553084
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD45RAsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD45RA
Label: Biotin
Clone: 14.8
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 557460
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD45RBsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD45RB
Label: PE
Clone: C363-16A
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 103307
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD49bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD49b
Label: PE
Clone: DX5
Isotype: Rat IgM, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 108908
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD49bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD49b
Label: APC
Clone: DX5
Isotype: Rat IgM, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 108910
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD49bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD49b
Label: FITC
Clone: DX5
Isotype: Rat IgM, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553857
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD49fsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD49f
Label: Biotin
Clone: GoH3
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 313604
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD5search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD5
Label: none
Clone: 53-7.3
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01031D, new = 553017
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD51 / integrin alpha vsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD51 / integrin alpha v
Label: Biotin
Clone: H9.2B8
Isotype: Hamster IgG3, lambda
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 557408, old = 01522A (discontinued)
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD54 / ICAM-1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD54 / ICAM-1
Label: none
Clone: clone 3E2
Isotype: Hamster IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01541D, new = 553250
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD54 / ICAM-1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD54 / ICAM-1
Label: PE
Clone: clone 3E2
Isotype: Hamster IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Biosciences 553253
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD54 / ICAM-1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD54 / ICAM-1
Label: FITC
Clone: clone 3E2
Isotype: Hamster IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553252
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD61search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD61
Label: FITC
Clone: 2C9.G2
Isotype: Hamster IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 22444D, new = 553346
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD61 / integrin Beta3search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD61 / integrin Beta3
Label: Biotin
Clone: 2C9.G2
Isotype: Hamster IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01862D, new = 553345
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD62Lsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD62L
Label: PE
Clone: MEL-14
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 104408
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD62P / P-selectinsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD62P / P-selectin
Label: Biotin
Clone: RB40.34
Isotype: Rat IgG1, lambda
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553743
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD71/transferrin Rsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD71/transferrin R
Label: none
Clone: C2
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01591D, new = 553264
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD80search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD80
Label: PE
Clone: 16-10A1
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 104708
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD80search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD80
Label: Biotin
Clone: 16-10A1
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 104703
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD86search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD86
Label: PE
Clone: PO3
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 105106
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD86search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD86
Label: FITC
Clone: GL1
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 09274D, new = 553691
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD86search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD86
Label: Biotin
Clone: PO3
Isotype: ? (discontinued)
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 105103 (discontinued)
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD8asearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouese CD8a
Label: PE
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 100708
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD8asearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD8a
Label: CyChrome
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553034
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD8asearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD8a
Label: none
Clone: YTS-169.4
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: depletion in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 750 ug i.p. on day -1, and 250 ug weekly maintenance dose.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse cD8asearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse cD8a
Label: FITC
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 100706
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD8asearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD8a
Label: APC
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 100712
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD8asearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD8a
Label: tri-color
Clone: ?
Isotype: ?
Type: commercial
Source: Caltag RM2206
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD8Bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD8B
Label: PE
Clone: 53-5.8
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 140407
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD8Bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD8B
Label: PerCP-Cy5.5
Clone: YTS156.7.7
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 126610
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD90.1 / anti-rat CD90 (Thy-1.1)search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD90.1 / anti-rat CD90 (Thy-1.1)
Label: PE
Clone: OX-7
Isotype: Mouse IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD 551401
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD90.2 / Thy-1.2search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD90.2 / Thy-1.2
Label: FITC
Clone: 53-2.1
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553003
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CD95 / Fassearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CD95 / Fas
Label: FITC
Clone: Jo2
Isotype: Hamster IgG2
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 554257
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CLTA-4 / CD152search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CLTA-4 / CD152
Label: none (LEAF-purified)
Clone: 9H10
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 106203
Used for: neutralization / blocking in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200 ug i.p. on day +3, +6, +9 and every 3 days thereafter.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse complement C3search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse complement C3
Label: FITC
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Goat IgG
Type: commercial
Source: ICN / Cappel 55500
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CTLA-4 / CD152search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CTLA-4 / CD152
Label: none
Clone: 9D9
Isotype: Syrian hamster
Type: commercial
Source: Bristol Myers Squibb
Used for: neutralization / blocking in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200 ug i.p. on day +3, +6, +9 and every 3 days thereafter.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse CXCR3search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse CXCR3
Label: none
Clone: CXCR3-173
Isotype: A. Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: neutralization / blocking in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200-500 ug ip qed
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse DR5 / CD262search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse DR5 / CD262
Label: Biotin
Clone: MD5-1
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: eBiosciences 13-5883-82
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse F4/80search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse F4/80
Label: FITC
Clone: CI:A3-1
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: commercial
Source: Caltag RM2901
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse F4/80search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse F4/80
Label: PE
Clone: BM8
Isotype: Rat IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: Caltag MF48004
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse F4/80search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse F4/80
Label: PerCP
Clone: BM8
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 123125
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse FAPsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse FAP
Label: none
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Rabbit polyclonal
Type: commercial
Source: abcam ab53066
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse FOXP3search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse FOXP3
Label: PE
Clone: MF-14
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 126403
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse FOXP3search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse FOXP3
Label: APC
Clone: FKJ-16s
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: eBiosciences 17-5773-82
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Dbsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Db
Label: PE
Clone: KH95
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553574
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Dbsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Db
Label: Biotin
Clone: 34-2-12
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 06132D, new = 553578
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Dbsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Db
Label: none (no azide / low endotoxin)
Clone: 28-14-8
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 0623OD, new = 559579
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Db / H-2Ldsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Db / H-2Ld
Label: none
Clone: 28-14-8
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 114502
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Kbsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Kb
Label: none
Clone: AF6-88.5
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553567
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Kbsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Kb
Label: none
Clone: AF6-88.5
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 116502
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Kbsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Kb
Label: Biotin
Clone: AF6-88.5
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 06102D, new = 553568
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Kbsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Kb
Label: PE
Clone: AF6-88.5
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553570
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Kdsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Kd
Label: PE
Clone: SF1-1.1
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553566
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Kdsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Kd
Label: Biotin
Clone: SF1-1.1
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 06092D, new = 553564
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Kksearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Kk
Label: PE
Clone: 36-7-5
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553593
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H-2Kksearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H-2Kk
Label: Biotin
Clone: 36-7-5
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 06182D, new = 553591
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse H60search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse H60
Label: none
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Goat polyclonal
Type: commercial
Source: Santa Cruz sc-20330
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse I-Absearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse I-Ab
Label: Biotin
Clone: AF6-120.1
Isotype: IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553550
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse I-Absearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse I-Ab
Label: PE
Clone: AF6-120.1
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 116408
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse I-Absearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse I-Ab
Label: FITC
Clone: AF6-120.1
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553551
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse I-Adsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse I-Ad
Label: PE
Clone: AMS-32.1
Isotype: Mouse IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553548
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse I-Eksearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse I-Ek
Label: Biotin
Clone: 14-4-45
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 06022A, new = 558735
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IFNAR1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IFNAR1
Label: none
Clone: MAR1-5A3
Isotype: Mouse IgG1, k
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: neutralization / blocking in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 2.5 mg i.p. on day -1, and 0.5 mg weekly maintenance dose.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IFNgsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IFNg
Label: PE
Clone: XMG1.2
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Biosciences554412
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IFNgsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IFNg
Label: none
Clone: H22
Isotype: A.Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: neutralization in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 750 ug i.p. on day -1, and 250 ug weekly maintenance dose.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Igsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ig
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: PE
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Goat
Type: commerciai
Source: Pharmingen 550589
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Igsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ig
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: FITC
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Goat
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 12064D, new = 554001
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IgDsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IgD
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: FITC
Clone: 11-26c.2a
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553439
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IgDbsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IgDb
Label: FITC
Clone: 217-170
Isotype: Mouse IgG1a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 05074D
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IgGsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IgG
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: PE
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Goat
Type: commerciai
Source: Caltag M300004-1
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IgGsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IgG
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: AlexaFluor 488
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Goat
Type: commerciai
Source: Molecular Probes A11029
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IgG2asearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IgG2a
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: FITC
Clone: ?
Isotype: ?
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 02014D
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IgMsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IgM
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: PE
Clone: R6-60.2
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553409, old = 02084D
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IgMsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IgM
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: FITC
Clone: ?
Isotype: ?
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 02204D
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-10search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-10
Label: PE
Clone: JES5-16E3
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: commercial
Source: BD Biosciences 554467
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-10Rsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-10R
Label: Biotin
Clone: 1B1.3a
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 559913
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-12search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-12
Label: PE
Clone: C15.6
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 505203
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-12p40search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-12p40
Label: none
Clone: C17.8
Isotype: Rat IgG2a
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: neutralization in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 750 ug i.p. on day -1, and 250 ug bi-weekly maintenance dose.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-17search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-17
Label: PE
Clone: TC11-18H10.1
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 506904
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-1asearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-1a
Label: none
Clone: ALF-161
Isotype: A.Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: neutralization in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200 ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-1asearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-1a
Label: PE
Clone: ALF-161
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 503203
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-1Bsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-1B
Label: none
Clone: B122
Isotype: A.Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: neutralization in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200 ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-1R1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-1R1
Label: none
Clone: JAMA-147
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: neutralization in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200 ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-2search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-2
Label: PE
Clone: JES6-5H4
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 18175A
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-4search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-4
Label: APC
Clone: 11B11
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 504105
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-5search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-5
Label: APC
Clone: TRFK5
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 504305
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse IL-6search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse IL-6
Label: PE
Clone: MP5-20F3
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 504503
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Ly-51search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ly-51
Label: PE
Clone: 6C3/BP-1
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553735
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Ly-6A/E / SCA-1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ly-6A/E / SCA-1
Label: PE
Clone: E13-161.7
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01835B, new = 553336
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Ly-6G / Ly-6C (Gr-1)search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ly-6G / Ly-6C (Gr-1)
Label: none
Clone: RB6-8C5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01211D, new = 553123
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Ly6Gsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ly6G
Label: PE
Clone: RB6-8C5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553128
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Ly6Gsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ly6G
Label: PE
Clone: 1A8
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 551461
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Ly6G/Ly6C (Gr-1)search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ly6G/Ly6C (Gr-1)
Label: APC
Clone: RB6-8C5
Isotype:
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553129
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Ly6G/Ly6C (Gr-1)search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ly6G/Ly6C (Gr-1)
Label: FITC
Clone: RB6-8C5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 108406
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Ly6G/Ly6C (Gr-1)search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ly6G/Ly6C (Gr-1)
Label: PerCP-Cy5.5
Clone: RB6-8C5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 552093
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse Ly6G/Ly6C (Gr-1)search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse Ly6G/Ly6C (Gr-1)
Label: none
Clone: RB6-8C5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 108414
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse MAdCAM-1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse MAdCAM-1
Label: none
Clone: MECA-367
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 09721D
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse NK1.1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse NK1.1
Label: PE
Clone: PK136
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553165
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse NK1.1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse NK1.1
Label: APC
Clone: PK136
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 108710
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse NK1.1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse NK1.1
Label: none
Clone: PK136
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: depletion in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200 ug i.p. on days -2, 0, +2, and 100 ug at 5-day intervals thereafter.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse NKG2D / CD314search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse NKG2D / CD314
Label: none
Clone: C7
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: neutralization / blocking in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 750 ug i.p. on day -1, and 250 ug bi-weekly maintenance dose.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse pan-NK cellssearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse pan-NK cells
Label: Biotin
Clone: DX5
Isotype: Rat IgM, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 553856
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse PD-1 / CD279search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse PD-1 / CD279
Label: none (LEAF-purified)
Clone: RMP1-14
Isotype: Rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegned 114107
Used for: neutralization / blocking in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200 ug i.p. on day +3, +6, +9 and every 3 days thereafter.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse PD-1 / CD279search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse PD-1 / CD279
Label: none
Clone: 4H2
Isotype: Rat-mouse chimera
Type: commercial
Source: Bristol Myers Squibb
Used for: neutralization / blocking in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200 ug i.p. on day +3, +6, +9 and every 3 days thereafter.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse PD-L1 / CD274search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse PD-L1 / CD274
Label: none
Clone: 14D8ch
Isotype: Rat-mouse chimera
Type: commercial
Source: Bristol Myers Squibb
Used for: neutralization / blocking in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200 ug i.p. on day +3, +6, +9 and every 3 days thereafter.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse PD-L1 / CD274search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse PD-L1 / CD274
Label: none (LEAF-purified)
Clone: 10F.9G2
Isotype: Rat IgG2b, k
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 124303
Used for: neutralization / blocking in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200 ug i.p. on day +3, +6, +9 and every 3 days thereafter.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TCR alpha/Betasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TCR alpha/Beta
Label: Biotin
Clone: H57-597
Isotype: Hamster IgG2, lambda
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01302A, new = 553168
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TCR gamma deltasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TCR gamma delta
Label: Biotin
Clone: GL3
Isotype: Hamster IgG2, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 01312D, new = 553176
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TCR Vbeta 5.1/2search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TCR Vbeta 5.1/2
Label: PE
Clone: MR9-4
Isotype: Mouse IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553190
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TCR Vbeta 8.1/2search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TCR Vbeta 8.1/2
Label: PE
Clone: MR5-2
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553186
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TCR Vg3search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TCR Vg3
Label: PE
Clone: 536
Isotype: Hamster IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 01485A, new = 553230
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TCRBetasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TCRBeta
Label: APC
Clone: H57-597
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 109212
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TCRgdsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TCRgd
Label: PE
Clone: GL3
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 118107
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TCRgdsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TCRgd
Label: PE
Clone: V65
Isotype: Mouse IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 551802
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TCRVbeta 8.3search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TCRVbeta 8.3
Label: PE
Clone: 1B3.3
Isotype: Hamster IgG3
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen 553664
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TLR3search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TLR3
Label: none
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Rat serum
Type: commercial
Source: eBiosciences 24-9031-91
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TLR5search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TLR5
Label: PE
Clone: 85B 152.5
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a, k
Type: commercial
Source: Imgenex IMG-663D
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TLR9search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TLR9
Label: FITC
Clone: 26C593.2
Isotype: Mouse IgG, k
Type: commercial
Source: Imgenex IMG-305C
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TNFasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TNFa
Label: none
Clone: TN3-19.12
Isotype: A. Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: neutralization in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 300 ug i.p. weekly. (200/250 ug)
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TNFasearch for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TNFa
Label: PE
Clone: MP6-XT22
Isotype: Rat IgG1, k
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 554419
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TNFR1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TNFR1
Label:
Clone: 55R-170
Isotype: A. Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: antagonist Ab
Treatment / Staining Regime: 250 ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TNFR1search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TNFR1
Label:
Clone: 55R-593
Isotype: A. Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: agonist Ab
Treatment / Staining Regime: 250 ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TNFR2search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TNFR2
Label:
Clone: TR75-54
Isotype: A. Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: antagonist, ELISA capture
Treatment / Staining Regime: 250 ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TNFR2search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TNFR2
Label:
Clone: TR75-32
Isotype: A. Hamster IgG
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: antagonist, ELISA detection
Treatment / Staining Regime: 250 ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-mouse TRAIL / CD253search for term

Antibody against:anti-mouse TRAIL / CD253
Label: none
Clone: N2B2
Isotype: Rat IgG2a
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source:
Used for: neutralization / blocking in vivo
Treatment / Staining Regime: 750 ug i.p. on day -1, and 250 ug bi-weekly maintenance dose.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-rabbit IgGsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-rabbit IgG
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: FITC
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Goat
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience 11-4839-81
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-rat Igsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-rat Ig
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: FITC
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: ?
Type: commercial
Source: Pharmingen 12114D
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-rat IgGsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-rat IgG
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: PE
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Goat
Type: commerciai
Source: Southern Biologicals 3030-09
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-rat IgGsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-rat IgG
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: FITC
Clone: polyclonal
Isotype: Goat
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 405404
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-rat IgGsearch for term

Antibody against:anti-rat IgG
Label: none
Clone: poly 4054
Isotype: Goat
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 405401
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-rat IgG (H+L)search for term

Antibody against:anti-rat IgG (H+L)
Label: Biotin
Clone:
Isotype: Rabbit
Type: commercial
Source: Vector Laboratories BA-4001
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

anti-rat IgG2asearch for term

Antibody against:anti-rat IgG2a
Type: Secondary Antibody
Label: FITC
Clone: MRG2a-83
Isotype: Mouse IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BioLegend 407505
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Antibodysearch for term

A type of protein made by B lymphocytes in response to a foreign substance (antigen). Each antibody only binds to a specific antigen, helping to destroy the antigen directly or by assisting white blood cells to destroy the antigen.

Antigensearch for term

A protein or other molecule that can elicit an immune response; the antibody protein that is produced binds to the antigen.

Antimorphic Mutationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which the altered gene product possesses an altered molecular function that acts antagonistically to the wild-type allele. Antimorphic mutations are always dominant or semidominant.

Antisensesearch for term

1. In molecular biology, that strand of a DNA molecule whose sequence is complementary to the strand represented in mRNA. 2. In molecular biology, an RNA molecule complementary to the strand normally processed into mRNA and translated.

Apoptosissearch for term

Programmed cell death, that is, the death of cells by a specific sequence of events triggered in the course of normal development (e.g., cells between digits in the limb bud) or as a means of preserving normal function (e.g., in response to viral infection).

Arrayed Librarysearch for term

Individual primary recombinant clones (hosted in phage, cosmid, YAC, or other vector) that are placed in two-dimensional arrays in microtiter dishes. Each primary clone can be identified by the identity of the plate and the clone location (row and column) on that plate. Information gathered on individual clones from various experimental techniques is entered into a relational database and used to construct physical and genetic linkage maps simultaneously; clone identifiers serve to interrelate the multilevel maps.

Assaysearch for term

In general, the qualitative or quantitative analysis of a substance. An assay is a type of experiment that is designed to detect the level of gene expression of a particular gene, or to determine the pattern of expression of a gene among different tissue types, anatomical structures, or developmental stages. The assay may detect one or more of the RNA transcripts of a gene or one or more of its protein products. Assay types include: Immunohistochemistry, Northern blot, Protein histochemistry, RNA In situ hybridization, In situ reporter, RNAse protection, RT-PCR, Western blot

Assembly Coordinatessearch for term

Numerical values defining a sequence interval along a chromosome in the mouse genome assembly. In MGI, gene sequences are defined as the interval between the start position of the first exon and the end position of the last exon of a gene as annotated by NCBI Gene or Ensembl. See NCBI Gene Model and Ensembl Gene Model for further information.

Assembly Sequencesearch for term

The sequence defined by an interval along a chromosome in the genome assembly. Assembly sequences are defined as the interval between the start position of the first exon and the end position of the last exon of a gene as annotated by the NCBI or Ensembl gene models.

ATCCsearch for term

American Type Culture Collection. A large collection of microbial stocks, including microbes containing mammalian DNA segments.

Autoradiographysearch for term

The detection of a unstable isotope that emits radiation by a photographic emulsion. In the case of in situ hybridization, this involves dipping microscope slides in liquid emulsion. In the case of Southern blots, Northern blots, or Western blots, the membrane is placed next to a sheet of X-ray film.

Autosomesearch for term

Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.

B-Lymphocytesearch for term

Immunologically important lymphocyte that is not thymus-dependent, is either short-lived and naive or long-lived and of memory phenotype, and resembles the bursa-derived lymphocyte of birds in that it is responsible for the production of immunoglobulins.

BACsearch for term

Bacterial Artificial Chromosome. A type of cloning vector derived from the naturally-occurring F factor episome. A BAC can carry 100 - 200 kb of foreign DNA.

BAC/YAC Endsearch for term

BAC/YAC end refers to sequences at the end of foreign DNA inserts in a BAC or YAC. These sequences are a source of STSs to determine the extent of overlap between BACs or YACs and to aid in the alignment of sequence contigs.

Backcrosssearch for term

A type of genetic cross in which a hybrid strain is crossed to one of the two parental strains.

Bacteriophagesearch for term

A virus that infects bacteria.

Basesearch for term

One of a set of nitrogenous compounds attached to the sugar-phosphate backbone in a nucleic acid. In DNA, the purine bases are adenine (A) and guanine (G), while the pyrimidine bases are cytosine (C) and thymine (T). In RNA, the purine bases are adenine (A) and guanine (G), while the pyrimidine bases are cytosine (C) and uracil (U).

Base Pairsearch for term

In double-stranded nucleic acids, a "base pair" is the structure formed between two complementary nucleotides by hydrogen bonding. In DNA, adenine(A) pairs with thymine (T) and cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G). In RNA, adenine (A) pairs with uracil (U) and cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G). See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Base Sequencesearch for term

The order of nucleotide bases in a DNA or RNA molecule.

BINDsearch for term

Biomolecular Interaction Network Database. A collection of records documenting molecular interactions. The contents of BIND include high-throughput data submissions and hand-curated information gathered from the scientific literature.

Bioassaysearch for term

A laboratory test or analysis of the biological activity of a substance performed by studying its effect on an organism or in a test tube under controlled conditions.

Biochemicalsearch for term

Of or relating to biochemistry; involving chemical processes in living organisms.

Bioinformaticssearch for term

The application of computer technology to the management of biological information. Specifically, it is the science of developing computer databases and algorithms to facilitate and expedite biological research, particularly in genomics.

Biological Processsearch for term

Refers to a broad category of biological tasks accomplished via one or more ordered assemblies of molecular functions. Usually there is some temporal aspect to it, although a process event may be essentially instantaneous. It often involves transformation, in the sense that something goes into a process and something different comes out of it. Examples of biological processes included in this category are cell growth and maintenance, signal transduction, pyrimidine metabolism, and cAMP biosynthesis. In the GO Project vocabularies, Biological Process is a primary class of terms. See the GO Consortium site for further information.

Biomarkersearch for term

A variation in cellular or biochemical components or processes, structures, or functions that is objectively measurable in a biological system and that characterizes normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, an organism's state of health or disease, likelihood of developing a disease, prognosis, or response to a particular therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers include but not limited to such phenotypic parameters as specific enzyme or hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype, presence or absence of biological substances.

Biosynthesissearch for term

Synthesis of chemical compounds by enzymatic processes in living organisms.

Biotechnologysearch for term

The field devoted to applying the techniques of biochemistry, cellular biology, biophysics, and molecular biology to addressing issues related to human beings and the environment.

Biotinsearch for term

One of the water-soluble B vitamins. It is useful in molecular biology as a chemical tag on nucleic acid probes or antibodies, because the biotin-scavenging proteins avidin and streptavidin bind biotin with high affinity. These biotin-binding proteins can be coupled to fluorescent dyes, enzymes that can be detected using chromogenic reactions, or colloidal gold, allowing detection of biotin-labeled probes or antibodies on Southern blots, Northern blots, Western blots, or cytological preparations.

BLASTsearch for term

Basic Local Alignment and Searching Tool. A sequence comparison algorithm optimized for speed used to search sequence databases for optimal local alignments to a query sequence. There is a description of the specific algorithm used, and additional information, at NCBI.

Blastocystsearch for term

An embryo made up of two groups of cells. One group will develop into the fetus and the other will become the placenta.

Blood-Brain Barriersearch for term

A network of blood vessels with closely spaced cells that makes it difficult for potentially toxic substances (such as anticancer drugs) to penetrate the blood vessel walls and enter the brain.

cAMPsearch for term

Cyclic AMP. A form of the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate that serves as a signaling molecule within and between cells.

Carboxyl Terminussearch for term

A term that identifies one end of a protein molecule. The carboxyl terminus is that end of the molecule which terminates in a free carboxyl group.

Carcinogensearch for term

Any chemical, biological or physical agents that increase the risk of neoplasms in humans or animals. Carcinogens include natural or synthesized compounds, certain viruses, and various sources of radiation. A carcinogen may directly alter the genetic material of cells (genotoxic), thereby initiating or promoting the process of malignant transformation; it also may induce cancers by mechanisms that do not involve a direct alteration of cellular genetic material (non-genotoxic). (NCI04)

Carcinogenesissearch for term

A pathological process in which normal cells are transformed into malignant cancer cells within a primary tumor. Metastasis occurs in advanced stage cancers, whereby cancer cells are released into the bloodstream and attach to sites distinct from the primary tumor, resulting in the formation of secondary tumors.

Carcinomasearch for term

A malignant tumor arising from epithelial cells. Carcinomas that arise from glandular epithelium are called adenocarcinomas, those that arise from squamous epithelium are called squamous cell carcinomas, and those that arise from transitional epithelium are called transitional cell carcinomas. Morphologically, the malignant epithelial cells may display abnormal mitotic figures, anaplasia, and necrosis. Carcinomas are graded by the degree of cellular differentiation as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. Carcinomas invade the surrounding tissues and tend to metastasize to other anatomic sites. Lung carcinoma, skin carcinoma, breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma are the most frequently seen carcinomas.

Cardiovascularsearch for term

Pertaining to the heart or blood vessels.

Catabolismsearch for term

Degradation of chemical compounds into compounds having a lower molecular weight by enzymatic processes in living organisms.

CD103search for term

Antibody against:CD103
Label: PerCP-Cy5.5
Clone: HL3
Isotype: hamster IgG1
Type: commercial/purified
Source: BD Pharmingen cat#560584
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: 0.5- 1 log
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD107a (LAMP-1)search for term

Antibody against:CD107a (LAMP-1)
Label: Purified
Clone: 2.4G2
Isotype: rat IgG2b
Type: commercial/purified
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553142
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS pre-stain blocking
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD11bsearch for term

Antibody against:CD11b
Label: nil
Clone: PC61
Isotype:
Type:
Source:
Restrictions on Use:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD11bsearch for term

Antibody against:CD11b
Label: nil
Clone: 20H2
Isotype:
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source: M. Kronenberg, La Jolla, CA
Restrictions on Use: used with permission
Used for: in-vivo CD1d blockade
Treatment / Staining Regime: in-vivo blockade for skin grafting expt- Donor ear skin treated D -1 ID 200ug Ab 100ul vol. Host blockade 200ug SC at graft site twice weekly for 4 weeks.
Performance: 50-65% reduction in CD1d mean fluorescence intensity by FACS- blood circulating lymphocytes
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD11csearch for term

Antibody against:CD11c
Label: APC
Clone: PC61
Isotype: rat IgG1
Type: commercial/purified
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 557192
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD11csearch for term

Antibody against:CD11c
Label: Purified
Clone: 17A2
Isotype: rat IgG2b,k
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 14-0032-85
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: IF
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD11csearch for term

Antibody against:CD11c
Label: Biotin
Clone: TY25
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: Biolegend cat# 107203
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: 2 log shift
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD16/CD32 (Fc block)search for term

Antibody against:CD16/CD32 (Fc block)
Label: PE
Clone: G8.8
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: Biolegend cat# 118205
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: IF, FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD19search for term

Antibody against:CD19
Label: PerCP
Clone: 145-2C11
Isotype: hamster IgG1
Type: commercial/purified
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553067
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: 2 log shift
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD1dsearch for term

Antibody against:CD1d
Label: PE-Cy7
Clone: GK1.5
Isotype: rat IgG2b
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 25-0041-81
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD206search for term

Antibody against:CD206
Label: nil
Clone: GK1.5
Isotype:
Type: purified hybrodoma supernatant
Source: UCSF
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: in-vivo CD4 depletion
Treatment / Staining Regime: in-vivo depletion IP 1mg. One shot only
Performance: Tested 7 days after treatment - 80% depletion
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD25search for term

Antibody against:CD25
Label: APC
Clone: RM4-5
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 17-0042-81
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: IF, FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: 2 log shift
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD25search for term

Antibody against:CD25
Label: PE
Clone: GK1.5
Isotype: rat IgG2b
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 12-0041-85
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: IF, FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD25search for term

Antibody against:CD25
Label: nil
Clone: FGK
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type:
Source: Prof Antionius Rolink (Basel, Switzerland)
Restrictions on Use: used with permission
Used for: in-vivo activating (agonist?)
Treatment / Staining Regime: in-vivo 150ug IV(?) on Day 0 then every 5 days
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD25 (IL-2R)search for term

Antibody against:CD25 (IL-2R)
Label: FITC
Clone: IM7
Isotype: rat IgG2b k
Type: commercial/purified
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553133
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: 2 log shift
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD273 (PD-L2)search for term

Antibody against:CD273 (PD-L2)
Label: biotin
Clone: A20
Isotype: mouse, IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 13-0453-85
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD3search for term

Antibody against:CD3
Label: APC
Clone: A20
Isotype: mouse IgG2a k
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 17-0453-81
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: 3 log shift
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD326 (Ep-CAM)search for term

Antibody against:CD326 (Ep-CAM)
Label: Biotin
Clone: 104
Isotype: mouse IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 13-0454-82
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: IF, FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD3esearch for term

Antibody against:CD3e
Label: PE
Clone: 104
Isotype: mouse IgG2a k
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 12-0454-81
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: 2 log shift
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD3esearch for term

Antibody against:CD3e
Label: APC
Clone: 104
Isotype: mouse IgG2a k
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 17-0454-82
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD3esearch for term

Antibody against:CD3e
Label: PE
Clone: MEL-14
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 12-0621-82
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: 2 log shift
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD4search for term

Antibody against:CD4
Label: FITC
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 11-0081
Restrictions on Use:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD4search for term

Antibody against:CD4
Label: PE
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 12-0081-83
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: IF, FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: 3 log shift
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD4search for term

Antibody against:CD4
Label: PE-Cy5.5
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial/purified
Source: Biolegend cat# 100720
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: IF
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD4search for term

Antibody against:CD4
Label: APC
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: rat IgG2a, ak
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 17-0081-83
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: 2.5 log shift
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD4search for term

Antibody against:CD4
Label: nil
Clone: 53-5.8
Isotype: IgG1
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source: in-house from hybridoma
Restrictions on Use: no
Used for: in-vivo depletion
Treatment / Staining Regime: Treat mice IP Day 0 100ug, Day 2 150ug, Day 9 100ug, test depletion Day 12. [Azad], Or Treat IP Day 0 150ug, Day 2 100ug, Day 7 100ug, test depletion Day10, plus weekly 100ug shots at Day
Performance: 90% depletion of CD8 splenocytes in vivo. Maintain with weekly 100ug shots for long-term expts
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD4 (L3T4)search for term

Antibody against:CD4 (L3T4)
Label: FITC
Clone: BM8
Isotype: rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 11-4801-82
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: IF
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD4 (L3T4)search for term

Antibody against:CD4 (L3T4)
Label: nil
Clone: 9H10
Isotype:
Type:
Source:
Restrictions on Use: MTA James Allison; Howard Hughes Inst, CA
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD4 (L3T4)search for term

Antibody against:CD4 (L3T4)
Label: FITC
Clone: MOMA-2
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: commercial/purified
Source: Serotec #MCA519F
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: IF
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD4 (L3T4)search for term

Antibody against:CD4 (L3T4)
Label: Biotin
Clone: BM8
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 13-4801-82
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: 0.5- 1 log
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD40search for term

Antibody against:CD40
Label: PE
Clone: FJK-16s
Isotype: rat IgG2a, k
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 12-5773-82
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug. must use eBio fix/perm buffers.
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD44search for term

Antibody against:CD44
Label: nil
Clone: R4-6A2
Isotype:
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source: in-house from hybridoma
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: in-vivo blocking
Treatment / Staining Regime: in-vivo blocking, 1.0mg SC neck scruff Day 0 and Day 4
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD45 (LCA, Ly-5)search for term

Antibody against:CD45 (LCA, Ly-5)
Label: nil
Clone: GR20
Isotype: R35-95
Type:
Source:
Restrictions on Use:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD45.1search for term

Antibody against:CD45.1
Label: nil
Clone: MAC49
Isotype:
Type: purified hybridoma supernatant
Source: Ray Steptoe, UQDI
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: in-vivo depletion control for CD8b
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD45.1search for term

Antibody against:CD45.1
Label: nil
Clone:
Isotype:
Type: commercial/purified
Source: Bio-Express/ BioXcell
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: in-vivo neutralisation
Treatment / Staining Regime: ?0.5mg?
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD45.2search for term

Antibody against:CD45.2
Label: Alexa Fluor 647
Clone: 929F3.01
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: Dendritics cat# DDX0362A647
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: IF
Treatment / Staining Regime: permeabilise. 0.125- 0.03ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD45.2search for term

Antibody against:CD45.2
Label: Biotin
Clone: 205C1
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: Dendritics cat# DDX0370B
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: 2 logs over iso
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD45.2search for term

Antibody against:CD45.2
Label: FITC
Clone:
Isotype: rat IgG2b
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 11-5321-85
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.125ug for skin, 0.03ug for splenocytes
Performance: 3 logs over iso
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD49bsearch for term

Antibody against:CD49b
Label: nil
Clone: RMP1-14
Isotype:
Type: commercial purified
Source: BioXcell
Restrictions on Use: Permission to purchase Ab from Hideo Yagito required
Used for: in vivo blocking
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200ug IP
Performance: Not determined
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD62Lsearch for term

Antibody against:CD62L
Label: PE
Clone: MIH5
Isotype: rat IgG2a, lambda
Type: commercial/purified
Source: eBioscience cat# 12-5982-81
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: 1 log over iso
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD8search for term

Antibody against:CD8
Label: nil
Clone: 10F.9G2
Isotype:
Type: commercial purified
Source: BioXcell
Restrictions on Use: Permission to purchase Ab from Hideo Yagito required
Used for: in vivo blocking
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200ug IP
Performance: 0.6
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD8asearch for term

Antibody against:CD8a
Label: nil
Clone: TY25
Isotype:
Type:
Source: Hideo Yagita
Restrictions on Use: Permission to use Ab from Hideo Yagito required
Used for: in vivo blocking
Treatment / Staining Regime: 200ug IP
Performance: 1
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD8a (Ly-2)search for term

Antibody against:CD8a (Ly-2)
Label: FITC
Clone: H57-597
Isotype: hamster IgG2
Type: commercial/purified
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553171
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD8a (Ly-2)search for term

Antibody against:CD8a (Ly-2)
Label: purified
Clone: MR5D3
Isotype: Rat IgG2A
Type: Biolegend
Source: 123009
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 5ug/ml
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Matthew Krummel

CD8a (Ly-2)search for term

Antibody against:CD8a (Ly-2)
Label: FITC
Clone: MR11-1
Isotype: mouse IgG1
Type: commercial/purified
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553300
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD8a (Ly-2)search for term

Antibody against:CD8a (Ly-2)
Label: PE-Cy7
Clone: M1/70
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: commercial
Source: eBioScience # 25-0112
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

CD8a (Ly-2)search for term

Antibody against:CD8a (Ly-2)
Label: PE
Clone: M290
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial/purified
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 557495
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: 0.5- 1 log shift
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

CD8a (Ly-2)search for term

Antibody against:CD8a (Ly-2)
Label: purified
Clone: 927
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: eBioscience
Source: 51-3172-80
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 2ug/ml
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Matthew Krummel

CD8a (Ly-2)search for term

Antibody against:CD8a (Ly-2)
Label: purified
Clone: AL-21
Isotype: Rat
Type: BD Pharmingen
Source: 553104
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 5ug/ml
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Matthew Krummel

CD8bsearch for term

Antibody against:CD8b
Label: FITC
Clone: HL3
Isotype: hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 557400
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2 ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

cDNAsearch for term

Complementary DNA. A DNA copy of an mRNA or complex sample of mRNAs, made using reverse transcriptase.

Cell Microenvironmentsearch for term

 The complex relationships between tumor cells and the neighboring cells in the host environment. Cellular signaling within the microenvironment can promote the continuing survival and growth of tumor cells, or apoptosis (cell death). Research is currently underway to manipulate this relationship by altering the host environment in ways that silence or inhibit pro-survival signals concurrent with standard therapies.

Cellular Componentsearch for term

Refers to subcellular structures, locations, and macromolecular complexes. Some examples are nucleus, telomere and origin recognition complex. In the GO Project vocabularies, Cellular Component is a primary class of terms. See the GO Consortium site for further information.

Centimorgansearch for term

A unit of length in a genetic map. Two loci are 1 cM apart if recombination is detected between them in 1% of meioses.

Central Dogmasearch for term

The principal statement of the molecular basis of inheritance. In its simplest form: "DNA makes RNA makes protein." This means that (generally) genetic information is stored in and transmitted as DNA. Genes are expressed by being copied as RNA (transcription), which is processed into mRNA via splicing and polyadenylation. The information in mRNA is translated into a protein sequence using a genetic code to interpret three-base codons as instructions to add one of twenty amino acids or to stop translation.

Centromeresearch for term

In mammalian genetics, the primary constriction of a chromosome separating it into the short arm (p) and the long arm (q). The centromere is the chromosomal region over which the kinetochore is organized. Mouse chromosomes have centromeres close to one end and have essentially no short arm. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Chemicalsearch for term

A substance with a defined atomic or molecular structure that results from, or takes part in, reactions involving changes in its structure, composition, or properties.

Chemically Induced Mutationsearch for term

A mutation induced by treatment with a chemical mutagen, for example, ENU (ethyl nitrosourea) or chlorambucil.

Chemopreventionsearch for term

The use of natural or synthetic substances (e.g., drugs, vitamins, hormones, plant products) or food supplements to reduce the risk of developing a disease, to reduce the chance that disease will recur, or to delay the recurrence.

Chemotherapysearch for term

The use of synthetic or naturally-occurring chemicals for the treatment of diseases. Although this term is used to describe any therapy involving the use of chemical-based agents, it is particularly used to refer to the use of chemical-based agents to treat cancer. Antineoplastic chemotherapy works by arresting or killing the growth and spread of cancer cells. Chemotherapy may also include agents that enhance immune function or alter hormonal activity.

Chiasmasearch for term

The cytologically visible consequence of a reciprocal recombination event in meiosis, observable in the later stage of meiotic prophase. Chiasmata hold homologous chromosomes together prior to anaphase of the first meiotic division.

Childrensearch for term

In MGI, this term refers to terms in a hierarchical controlled vocabulary like ones containing Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A "child" of a term is a term any number of levels below it in the hierarchy that is a descendant of the term. For example, the GO term alcohol dehydrogenase [GO:0004022] is a child of the GO term enzyme [GO:0003824].

Chimerasearch for term

1. An animal formed from two different animals, that is from two different embryonic sources. In mouse genetics, targeted mutations produced in embryonic stem cells are recovered by breeding chimeric mice resulting from the mixture of ES cells with a genetically-distinct blastocyst.2. A clone containing genomic DNA from nonadjacent genomic segments or cDNA from two different mRNAs.

Chlorambucilsearch for term

A chemical mutagen, also called nitrogen mustard.

Cholangiocarcinomasearch for term

An malignant tumor composed of cells resembling those of bile ducts. Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare tumor in most populations. It can arise from any portion of the intrahepatic bile duct epithelium or the hepatic ducts. Grossly, the lesions are nodular, grayish-white firm and solid. Microscopically, the vast majority of cholangiocarcinomas are adenocarcinomas showing tubular and/or papillary structures. Early detection of cholangiocarcinomas is difficult, and the overall prognosis after resection is poor (adapted from WHO, 2000).

Chromatinsearch for term

The nuclear material that makes up chromosomes, consisting of DNA and protein.

Chromogenicsearch for term

Color-generating. A chromogenic substrate is colorless until acted upon by an enzyme; it then becomes an insoluble pigment.

Chromosomesearch for term

A structural unit within a eukaryotic nucleus that carries genes. A chromosome consists of a long, continuous strand of DNA and associated proteins. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Chromosome Aberrationsearch for term

1. A chromosome rearrangement. 2. Less commonly, a numerical aberration.

Chromosome Rearrangementsearch for term

A kind of mutation in which there is a change in the arrangement of the genome into chromosomes; this term usually applies to those changes that are visible cytogenetically. Classes of chromosome rearrangements include: Deletion, Duplication, Insertion, Inversion, Translocation, Transposition

Clonesearch for term

1. A segment of DNA contained within a cloning vector. 2. An organism derived from a founding individual by asexual means that is genetically identical to the founding individual.

Clone Collectionsearch for term

Clone collections in MGI refer to designated sets of clones from specific clone libraries. In some cases, the designated set of clones includes all clones from the specified libraries (for example, the IMAGE clone collection is the group of clones from all IMAGE. consortium clone libraries). In other cases, the designated set of clones includes a well-defined subset of clones from the specified libraries (for example, the NIA 15K clone set is a subset of clones derived from NIA libraries). Clone data in MGI include sequence associations and clone library molecular source information. For all MGI clone collections, molecular source information is mapped to MGI controlled vocabularies.

Cloning Artifactsearch for term

A DNA clone whose structure does not accurately represent genomic or mRNA sequence, due to errors in the cloning process. For example, two noncontiguous genomic fragments may be joined by ligation prior to being incorporated into the cloning vector.

Cloning Vectorsearch for term

A DNA construct capable of replication within a bacterial or yeast host that can harbor foreign DNA, facilitating experimental manipulation of that DNA segment.

cMsearch for term

See centimorgan.

Co-clinical Trialsearch for term

In a co-clinical trial, drug combinations are tested contemporaneously in mouse models that closely mimic human diseases, and in small numbers of molecularly matched patients who have failed initial or follow-up standard-of-care therapy. Clinical, biological, and pharmacological information are accrued, analyzed in parallel, and integrated to facilitate response biomarker discovery and to advise selection of imaging biomarkers to distinguish responders from non-responders.

Coding Regionsearch for term

That part of a gene whose sequence is read as codons during translation.

Codominantsearch for term

One of a series of terms applied to the phenotypic effect of a particular allele in reference to another allele (usually the standard wild-type allele) with respect to a given trait. An allele "a" is said to be codominant with respect to the wild-type allele "A" if the A/a heterozygote fully expresses both of the phenotypes associated with the a/a and A/A homozygotes. An example of codominance is the ABO blood type antigens in humans, where AA individuals are type A, BB individuals are type B, and AB individuals are type AB.

Codonsearch for term

Three bases in a DNA or RNA sequence that specify an amino acid or a termination signal (stop codon).

Cohortsearch for term

A group of individuals, identified by a common characteristic.

Coisogenic Strainsearch for term

A strain that differs from a particular inbred strain at only one locus. A coisogenic strain arises when a mutation occurs in an inbred strain. The coisogenic strain can be propagated by intercrossing heterozygotes to produce homozygotes; if these are nonviable, the strain can be maintained by backcrossing heterozygotes to the original inbred strain. See also the Rules for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains.

Colloidal Goldsearch for term

Fine particles of gold (on the order of 5-20 nm diameter) that can be coupled to antibodies or other proteins, allowing the detection of the binding of the labeled proteins by electron microscopy.

Complementary DNAsearch for term

See cDNA.

Complementary Sequencesearch for term

A single-stranded nucleic acid that would bind to a given single-stranded nucleic acid by following base pairing rules (A pairs with T and C with G). The complementary sequence to GTAC for example, is CATG.

Complementationsearch for term

The appearance of a wild-type phenotype in an individual that is the hybrid offspring of two mutant individuals homozygous for recessive mutations. Complementation shows that the two parental mutant individuals have mutant alleles of different genes, even if they are phenotypically similar. For example, a cross between two light gray mice(ash/ash and d/d) would produce a black mouse.

Complex/Cluster/Regionsearch for term

In MGI, the marker type "Complex/Cluster/Region" refers to any of the following: 1. Gene complex; a group of genes closely linked together that are related evolutionarily or functionally. Interspersed unrelated genes located within the group are included. 2. A segment of the mouse genome defined by comparison to an orthologous segment in the genome of another species, or by some specific characteristic, such as loss of heterozygosity. 3. A marker repository for information pertaining to a specific gene family, where such information lacks precise family member resolution.

Compound Heterozygotesearch for term

A heterozygote where different mutant alleles are present at the two copies of a given locus. In MGI, a compound heterozygote occurs when the two opposing alleles are associated with different MGI markers.

Conditional Genotypesearch for term

A genotype that is dependent on the presence of some other factor (often a DNA sequence that expresses a protein functioning in specific recombination events). In MGI, conditional is most commonly used to represent Cre-mediated excision of genomic sequences flanked by loxP sites. In most instances, excision of the endogenous genomic sequence flanked by loxP sites is accompanied by simultaneous insertion of some selectable marker (e.g. neomycin). The excised genotype, which is often associated with a phenotype, is dependent (or conditional) on the presence of the Cre-expressing construct.

Congenic Strainsearch for term

Congenic strains are produced by transferring a mutation from one genetic background to a specific inbred strain through repeated backcrossing. The congenic strain and the inbred partner are expected to be identical at all loci except for the transferred locus and a linked segment of chromosome. The size of the segment and the possibility of transferred alleles on other chromosomes depend on the number of backcross generations. A strain is considered fully congenic after ten generations of backcrossing (N10). (from JAX Strain Information)

Conplastic Strainsearch for term

Conplastic strains are developed by backcrossing the nuclear genome from one inbred strain into the cytoplasm of another, i.e. the mitochondrial parent is always the female parent during the backcrossing program. The strain designation is NUCLEAR GENOME-mtCYTOPLASMIC GENOME. For example, C57BL/6J-mtBALB/c is a strain with the nuclear genome of C57BL/6J and the cytoplasmic genome of BALB/c. It was developed by crossing male C57BL/6J mice with BALB/c females, followed by repeated backcrossing of female offspring to male C57BL/6J. As with congenic strains, a minimum of 10 backcross generations is required, counting the F1 generation as generation 1. See also the Rules for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains.

Conserved Sequencesearch for term

A base sequence in a DNA molecule (or an amino acid sequence in a protein) that has remained relatively unchanged throughout evolution.

Conserved Syntenysearch for term

The occurrence of synteny of orthologous genes in two different organisms. Conserved synteny between mouse and human does not usually extend over entire chromosomes, with the exception of the X chromosome. See the Orthology Map for a graphical display of conserved synteny.

Consomic Strainsearch for term

An inbred strain that contains a single entire chromosome from another strain. Consomic (or Chromosome Substitution Strains) are derived by backcrossing to a parental inbred strain for at least ten generations while selecting for retention of a specific whole chromosome from the donor strain.

Constitutively activesearch for term

In cell biology, a constitutively active protein is a protein whose activity is constant and active

Contigsearch for term

1. A physical map of contiguous genomic DNA assembled using overlapping cloned segments (see STS). 2. A contiguous DNA sequence assembled using overlapping DNA sequences.

Controlled Vocabularysearch for term

A restricted set of defined terms allowing the representation of complex information in a database.

Copy Numbersearch for term

The number of molecules of a particular type on or in a cell or part of a cell. Usually applied to specific genes or to plasmids within a bacterium.

Copy Number Polymorphismsearch for term

Variation in the number of copies of a particular sequence within the genetic material of an individual. Large-scale copy number polymorphisms are common and widely distributed in the human genome.

Copy Number Variationsearch for term

A copy number variant (CNV) is a segment of DNA in which copy-number differences have been found by comparison of two or more genomes. The segment may range from one kilobase to several megabases in size. Humans (being diploid) ordinarily have two copies of each autosomal region, one per chromosome. This may vary for particular genetic regions due to deletion or duplication.

Cosmidsearch for term

A type of cloning vector derived from bacteriophage lambda. A cosmid can carry about 40 kb of foreign DNA.

Cre Recombinasesearch for term

A site-specific recombination enzyme that recognizes the 34 base pair loxP sequence.

Crosssearch for term

An experimental mating of two genetically distinct sexually reproducing organisms.

Cross-hybridizationsearch for term

With respect to nucleic acids, "cross-hybridization" refers to the formation of double-stranded DNA, RNA, or DNA/RNA hybrids by complementary base pairing between two molecules that are not identical in sequence. Cross-hybridization may be observed between nucleic acids derived from orthologous or paralogous genes.

Crossoversearch for term

A reciprocal recombination event.

Cryopreservationsearch for term

Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by storage at low temperatures.

CTLA4search for term

Antibody against:CTLA4
Label: APC
Clone: PC61.5
Isotype: rat IgG1
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience cat# 17-0251
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2 ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Cy5search for term

A fluorescent dye used to label DNA probes for FISH or antibodies for immunofluorescence or Western blots.

Cyclosporinesearch for term

A natural cyclic polypeptide immunosuppressant isolated from the fungus Beauveria nivea. The exact mechanism of action of cyclosporine is not known but may involve binding to the cellular protein cytophilin, resulting in inhibition of the enzyme calcineurin. This agent appears to specifically and reversibly inhibit immunocompetent lymphocytes in the G0-or G1-phase of the cell cycle. T-lymphocytes are preferentially inhibited with T-helper cells as the primary target. Cyclosporine also inhibits lymphokine production and release.

Cytobandsearch for term

One of the subregions of a chromosome visible microscopically after special staining.

Cytogeneticsearch for term

Refers to the correlation of genetic and cytological information through the microscopic analysis of stained preparations of chromosomes, including those from individuals carrying mutations.

Cytogenetic Bandsearch for term

One of the subregions of a chromosome visible microscopically after special staining.

Cytogenetic Mapsearch for term

A type of genetic map relating gene positions to chromosomal banding patterns. The maps are built from relating the positions of genes to cytogenetic markers or by in situ hybridization.

Cytogenetic Markersearch for term

1. A structure within a chromosome that is visible by microscopic examination, possibly after special staining methods are used. 2. A chromosome rearrangement that is visible by microscopic examination.

Cytogeneticssearch for term

The branch of biology that studies the cellular aspects of heredity, especially the chromosomes. Includes the study of disease states caused by numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities.

Cytoplasmsearch for term

That part of a eukaryotic cell that is not the nucleus.

Cytosine (C)search for term

A pyrimidine base that is a component of nucleotides and thus a normal component of DNA and RNA. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Degeneratesearch for term

A term describing one of the qualities of the genetic code, specifically, that some amino acids may be specified by more than one codon.

Deletionsearch for term

A type of mutation caused by loss of one or more nucleotides from a DNA segment. Deletions can be very large, encompassing many genes and megabases of DNA, to the point of producing a visible cytological abnormality in a chromosome. Small deletions within a gene can alter the reading frame, and thus the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Denaturationsearch for term

1. The separation of the two strands of a double-stranded nucleic acid caused by treatments that overcome hydrogen bonding, e.g., heat. 2. A usually irreversible change in the conformation of a protein caused by treatments that overcome hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, or other chemical forces that maintain the structure of proteins, e.g., heat.

Deoxyribonucleotidesearch for term

A monomer unit of DNA, consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base, a deoxyribose sugar molecule, and phosphate group(s).

Dephosphorylationsearch for term

The catalyzed removal of phosphate groups from biological molecules, by phosphatases.

Dimorphicsearch for term

Having two forms.

Diploidsearch for term

Having twice the chromosome number normally found in a gamete. Normal mice are diploid, having a chromosome set from the maternal gamete (the egg) and a chromosome set from the paternal gamete (the sperm). See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Direct detectionsearch for term

Indicates that the expression of the reporter gene was detected using a direct method, such as fluorescence or using an enzymatic substrate.

Directed Sequencingsearch for term

The sequencing of a large DNA segment through the sequencing of subsegments known to be adjacent.

Diseasesearch for term

In MGI, any human disease, condition, or syndrome listed in the OMIM database.

DNAsearch for term

A long linear double-stranded polymer formed from nucleotides attached to a deoxyribose backbone and found in the nucleus of a cell; associated with the transmission of genetic information.

DNA Constructsearch for term

An assembly of DNA sequences made in vitro to serve an experimental purpose.

DNA Methylationsearch for term

Attachment of methyl groups (-CH3) to DNA, most commonly at the cytosine bases.

DNA Polymerasesearch for term

An enzyme that carries out replication.

DNA Replicationsearch for term

The use of existing DNA as a template for the synthesis of new DNA strands. In mouse and other eukaryotes, replication occurs in the cell nucleus.

DNA Segmentsearch for term

1. A length of DNA. 2. In MGI, a DNA segment is a genomic feature recognized by anonymous DNA probes. Symbols for such segments most commonly represent intergenic markers used in genetic mapping.

DNA Sequencesearch for term

The relative order of base pairs, whether in a fragment of DNA, a gene, a chromosome, or an entire genome.

DNA Sequence Rearrangementsearch for term

Any process affecting a DNA sequence that results in the gain, loss or exchange of DNA between chromosomes and/or autonomous replicons.

dNTPsearch for term

Deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate. A generic term referring to the four deoxyribonucleotides: dATP, dCTP, dGTP and dTTP.

Dominantsearch for term

One of a series of terms applied to the phenotypic effect of a particular allele in reference to another allele (usually the standard wild-type allele) with respect to a given trait. An allele "A" is said to be dominant with respect to the allele "a" if the A/A homozygote and the A/a heterozygote are phenotypically identical and different from the a/a homozygote. An example is the Pmp22(Tr) mutation in mouse, which causes a myelination defect associated with a "trembler" phenotype. Pmp22(Tr)/Pmp22(Tr) and Pmp22(Tr)/Pmp22(+) animals are phenotypically identical, displaying the mutant phenotype, while Pmp22(+)/Pmp22(+) animals are wild-type. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Double Helixsearch for term

The shape that two linear strands of DNA assume when hydrogen-bonded together.

Draft Genome Sequencesearch for term

Sequence of genomic DNA having lower accuracy than finished sequence; some segments are missing or in the wrong order or orientation.

Duplicationsearch for term

An additional copy of a DNA segment present in the genome. Gene duplication is the source of paralogous genes. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

E. colisearch for term

Common bacterium that geneticists have studied intensively because of its small genome size, normal lack of pathogenicity, and ease of growth in the laboratory.

EC Numbersearch for term

A number assigned to a type of enzyme according to a scheme of standardized enzyme nomenclature developed by the Enzyme Commission of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). EC numbers may be found in ENZYME, the Enzyme nomenclature database, maintained at the ExPASy molecular biology server of the Geneva University Hospital and the University of Geneva, Switzerland.

Electrophoresissearch for term

The separation of charged molecules (DNA, RNA or protein) in an electrical field, usually in a supporting medium such as an agarose or polyacrylamide gel.

Electroporationsearch for term

The use of strong, brief pulses of electric current to create temporary holes in cell membranes, allowing the introduction of DNA.

EMBLsearch for term

European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database.

Embryonic Stem (ES) Cellssearch for term

Undifferentiated cells derived from blastocyst-stage embryos. ES cells can differentiate in culture to a number of different cell types. When incorporated into chimeric mouse embryos, they are totipotent: they can differentiate into any cell type in the mouse.

EMSsearch for term

Ethyl methanesulfonate (methanesulfonic acid ethyl ester). A chemical mutagen.

Endogenoussearch for term

Contained within. In mouse genetics, endogenous viruses are those that are integrated into the mouse genome and transmitted to progeny as chromosomal elements.

Endonucleasesearch for term

A protein that cleaves the phosphodiester backbone of a nucleic acid enzymatically, for example a restriction enzyme.

Enhancersearch for term

One of the necessary regulatory elements of a gene. An enhancer is a site on DNA to which a complex of transcription factors binds to affect the availability of the promoter to RNA polymerase. A gene may have multiple enhancers.

Enhancer Trapsearch for term

A type of DNA construct containing a reporter gene sequence downstream of a promoter that is capable of integrating into random chromosomal locations in mouse. Integration of the enhancer trap near an enhancer allows the expression of a new mRNA encoding the reporter gene. The reporter gene is therefore expressed in the cells and developmental stages where the enhancer is active.

Ensembl Gene Modelsearch for term

A description of a gene associated with the mouse genome assembly from the Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium (MGSC). The gene model includes the coordinates of each intron and exon, as well as the beginning and end of the transcript.

ENUsearch for term

A nitrosourea with potential antineoplastic activity. Used experimentally as a mutagen and carcinogen, ethylnitrosourea alkylates DNA and proteins, thereby damaging DNA and inducing point mutations. (NCI04)

Enzymesearch for term

A protein (or rarely, RNA) that catalyzes a chemical reaction.

Epigeneticsearch for term

Refers to factors affecting the development or function of an organism other than the primary sequence of the target genes.

Epigenomesearch for term

The term epigenome is derived from the Greek word epi which literally means "above" the genome. The epigenome consists of chemical compounds that modify, or mark, the genome in a way that tells it what to do, where to do it, and when to do it. Different cells have different epigenetic marks. These epigenetic marks, which are not part of the DNA itself, can be passed on from cell to cell as cells divide, and from one generation to the next.

Episomesearch for term

A plasmid able to integrate into bacterial DNA.

Epistasissearch for term

Masking of a phenotypic trait through the action of a mutant allele. For example, albinism (absence of pigment) is epistatic to coat color genes that determine black vs. brown fur.

ES Cellssearch for term

Undifferentiated cells derived from blastocyst-stage embryos. ES cells can differentiate in culture to a number of different cell types. When incorporated into chimeric mouse embryos, they are totipotent: they can differentiate into any cell type in the mouse.

ESTsearch for term

Expressed Sequence Tag. A partial sequence of a randomly chosen cDNA, obtained from the results of a single DNA sequencing reaction. ESTs are used both to identify transcribed regions in genomic sequence and to characterize patterns of gene expression in the tissue that was the source of the cDNA.

Ethidium Bromidesearch for term

A fluorescent dye that intercalates between base pairs in double-stranded nucleic acids or between bases in single-stranded nucleic acids. Ethidium bromide is commonly used to visualize DNA on agarose gels.

Ethylnitrosoureasearch for term

A nitrosourea with potential antineoplastic activity. Used experimentally as a mutagen and carcinogen, ethylnitrosourea alkylates DNA and proteins, thereby damaging DNA and inducing point mutations. (NCI04)

Etiologysearch for term

1. The cause of a disease. 2. In MGI, the genes identified as involved in causing a disease.

Euchromatinsearch for term

The part of the genome characterized by relatively high gene density and relative absence of highly repetitive sequences.

Eukaryotesearch for term

A cell or organism with membrane-bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other well-developed subcellular compartments. Eukaryotes include all organisms except viruses, bacteria, and blue-green algae.

Euploidsearch for term

Having a chromosome number that is an integral multiple of the haploid number without segmental duplications or deletions.

Evolutionsearch for term

Change of the genes of a population over time, resulting in new species.

Evolutionary Conservationsearch for term

The presence of similar genes, portions of genes, or chromosome segments in different species, reflecting both the common origin of species and an important functional property of the conserved element.

Exomesearch for term

The exome is the part of the genome formed by exons, coding portions of genes in the genome that are expressed, that is, provide the genetic blueprint used in the synthesis of proteins and other functional gene products. It is the functionally most relevant part of the genome and most likely to contribute to the phenotypes of an organism. For the human genome, the exome is estimated to comprise 1.5% of the total genome.

Exonsearch for term

The sequences of a gene that are present in the final, mature, spliced messenger RNA molecule from that gene.

Expressivitysearch for term

The relative constancy of the phenotype of individuals of a given genotype. Mutations said to have variable expressivity show a relatively large amount of phenotypic variation among individuals having the same genotype.

F4/80search for term

Antibody against:F4/80
Label: purified
Clone: PC61
Isotype: rat IgG1
Type: UCSF MAB core
Source: UCSF
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: depletion
Treatment / Staining Regime: 100ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

F4/80 (macrophage)search for term

Antibody against:F4/80 (macrophage)
Label: PE-Cy5
Clone: 145-2C11
Isotype:
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553065
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

F4/80 pansearch for term

Antibody against:F4/80 pan
Label: PE
Clone: 145-2C11
Isotype: hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553064
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

FASTA formatsearch for term

A data format for nucleic acid or protein sequences.

Fieldsearch for term

In a relational database, an item of information, such as a chromosome number, or the centimorgan length on a genetic map. Some fields are numeric, while others are textual; some are long, while others are short. In addition, every field has a name, called the field name. In database management systems, a field can be required, optional, or calculated. A required field is one in which you must enter data, while an optional field is one you may leave blank. A calculated field is one whose value is derived from some formula involving other fields. You do not enter data into a calculated field; the system automatically determines the correct value. A collection of fields is called a record.

Finished sequencesearch for term

Sequence of genomic DNA in which: a) bases are identified to an accuracy of no more than one error in 10,000 bases, b) there is no ambiguity about the order or orientation of any segment, and c) there are few if any gaps.

FISHsearch for term

Fluorescent in situ hybridization. A method for determining the cytogenetic location of a cloned segment of DNA. The DNA is labeled with a fluorescent dye and hybridized to a cytological preparation of chromosomes that has been denatured to allow nucleic acid hybridization between chromosomal DNA and the probe. The site of hybridization is determined by fluorescent microscopy. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Floxedsearch for term

Refers to a DNA construct in which a gene or gene segment is flanked by loxP sites in the same orientation; Cre recombinase excises the segment between the loxP sites.

Fluorescencesearch for term

Emission of secondary light generated by excitation by ultraviolet light, a beta particle or a gamma ray.

Fluorographysearch for term

The detection of radiation or of a fluorescent compound by secondary light that was generated by the excitation of a "fluor" or a screen by light, a beta particle or a gamma ray.

FoxP3search for term

Antibody against:FoxP3
Label: PE
Clone: RM4-5
Isotype: rat IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat # 553049
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

FoxP3 (rat too)search for term

Antibody against:FoxP3 (rat too)
Label: FITC
Clone: GK1.5
Isotype:
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553729
Restrictions on Use:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Frameshiftsearch for term

A type of mutation in which there is an insertion or deletion that changes the reading frame.

Gain-of-function Mutationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which the altered gene product possesses a new molecular function or a new pattern of gene expression. Gain-of-function mutations are almost always Dominant or Semidominant.

Gametesearch for term

One of the differentiated cells that is a product of meiosis. In animals, sperm or egg cells.

gamma delta TCRsearch for term

Antibody against:gamma delta TCR
Label: PE-Cy5
Clone: GK1.5
Isotype: Rat IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: Biolegend cat# 100410
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

GCG Formatsearch for term

A data format for nucleic acid or protein sequences.

GenBanksearch for term

The database of nucleic acid sequences at NCBI.

Genesearch for term

A functional unit of heredity which occupies a specific position (locus) on a particular chromosome, is capable of reproducing itself exactly at each cell division, and directs the formation of a protein or other product.

Gene Complexsearch for term

A number of apparently functionally or evolutionarily related loci that are genetically closely linked. Alternative states of complexes are referred to as haplotypes rather than alleles.

Gene Conversionsearch for term

A type of nonreciprocal recombination event in which a recipient strand of DNA receives information from another strand having an allelic difference. The recipient strand has its original allele "converted" to the new allele as a consequence of the event.

Gene Expressionsearch for term

Transcriptional activity of a gene resulting in one or more RNA products and, usually, following translation, one or more protein products.

Gene Familysearch for term

A group of paralogous genes.

Gene Modelsearch for term

A representation of an mRNA transcript of a gene that contains information about features of the transcript such as exon- intron boundaries, splice sites, UTRs, etc. Due to alternative splicing of mRNA transcripts, there may be more than one gene model for any given gene.

Gene Namesearch for term

In MGI, a "gene name" is a word or phrase that uniquely identifies a gene. The gene name has an abbreviation that is the gene symbol.

Gene Ontology (GO)search for term

A set of controlled vocabularies used to describe biological features within a specified domain of biological knowledge. See the GO Consortium site for further information.

Gene Productsearch for term

1. A protein molecule that is the product of the expression of a gene, through which the gene influences development or metabolism. 2. An RNA molecule that is the product of the expression of a gene, specially those cases in which the RNA molecule is not translated.

Gene Regulation Processsearch for term

Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene expression at the level of transcription or translation.

Gene Symbolsearch for term

As used in MGI, a "gene symbol" is a unique abbreviation for the gene name.

Gene Trapsearch for term

A type of DNA construct containing a reporter gene sequence downstream of a splice acceptor site that is capable of integrating into random chromosomal locations in mouse. Integration of the gene trap into an intron allows the expression of a new mRNA containing one or more upstream exons followed by the reporter gene. The reporter gene is therefore expressed in the same cells and developmental stages as the gene into which the gene trap has inserted.

Geneticsearch for term

Having to do with information that is passed from parents to offspring through genes in sperm and egg cells.

Genetic Codesearch for term

The relationship of the sixty-four nucleic acid codons to the twenty primary amino acids. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Genetic Mapsearch for term

A map showing the position of genes or markers on a chromosome. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Genetically Engineered Mousesearch for term

A mouse that has been genetically modified by introducing new genetic characteristics to it. It often involves the isolation, manipulation and reintroduction of DNA, usually to express a protein. Serves as an animal model for research purpose.

Geneticssearch for term

The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms

Genomesearch for term

The complete genomic content of an organism, and possibly the full DNA sequence of that organism. It is contained in a set of chromosomes in eukaryotes, a single chromosome in bacteria, or a DNA or RNA molecule in viruses.

Genome-wide association studysearch for term

In genetic epidemiology, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study), is an examination of all or most of the genes (the genome) of different individuals of a particular species to see how much the genes vary from individual to individual. Different variations are then associated with different traits, such as diseases.

Genomicssearch for term

The comprehensive study of whole sets of genes and their interactions rather than single genes or proteins.

Genotypesearch for term

The genetic constitution of an organism or cell, as distinct from its expressed features or phenotype.

Genotypingsearch for term

The process of assessing genetic variation present in an individual.

Germ Linesearch for term

Cells of an animal that give rise to gametes.

glossary1search for term

camp town ladies sing this song

Graftsearch for term

Tissue or organ transplanted from a donor to a recipient.

Guanine (G)search for term

A purine base that is a component of nucleotides and thus a normal component of DNA and RNA. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

GWASsearch for term

In genetic epidemiology, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study), is an examination of all or most of the genes (the genome) of different

H60search for term

Antibody against:H60
Label: APC
Clone: RM4-5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: commercial
Source: Biolegend cat# 100515
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Hamster IgGsearch for term

Antibody against:Hamster IgG
Type: Isotype Control
Label: HTK888
Clone: commercial
Isotype: PE
Type: BioLegend 400907
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Hamster IgG1, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Hamster IgG1, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: A19-3
Clone: commercial
Isotype: FITC
Type: Pharmingen 553971
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Hamster IgG2, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Hamster IgG2, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: B81-3
Clone: commercial
Isotype: Biotin
Type: Pharmingen 550084
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Haploidsearch for term

Having the chromosome number normally found in a gamete.

Haploinsufficientsearch for term

A description applied to a gene that produces a mutant phenotype when present in a diploid individual heterozygous for an amorphic allele.

Haplotypesearch for term

One of the alternative forms of the genotype of a gene complex. This term is applied to gene complexes rather than the term allele, which refers to one of the forms of a single gene.

Hemizygoussearch for term

The state of a locus in a diploid organism, where only one copy of the locus is present. Examples are sex-linked genes in normal mammalian males, insertions such as transgenic insertions, and autosomal alleles in combination with deletions that remove entire gene regions.

Hepatoblastomasearch for term

A malignant liver neoplasm that occurs almost exclusively in infants, although isolated cases in older children and adults have been reported. Grossly, hepatoblastoma is solid, well circumscribed, and more often solitary than multiple. Microscopically, most of the tumors are composed exclusively of immature hepatocytic elements. About a fourth of hepatoblastomas contain a stromal component that may be undifferentiated or develop into bone or cartilage. The treatment of choice for hepatoblastoma is surgical excision with adjuvant therapy. Liver transplantation is being increasingly used as well.

Hepatocellularsearch for term

Pertaining to or affecting liver cells.

Hereditysearch for term

The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.

Heritabilitysearch for term

Heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variation in a population that is attributable to genetic variation among individuals. Phenotypic variation among individuals may be due to genetic and/or environmental factors. Heritability analyses estimate the relative contributions of differences in genetic and non-genetic factors to the total phenotypic variance in a population.

Heterochromatinsearch for term

1. The part of the genome characterized by relatively low gene density and the presence of highly repetitive sequences. Heterochromatin is more highly condensed than euchromatin. 2. The X chromosome that is highly condensed in a mammalian cell that has undergone X inactivation. The inactive X chromosome resembles heterochromatin as defined above with respect to their state of condensation and genetic inactivity, although there is no change in the DNA sequence as a consequence of inactivation.

Heterogameticsearch for term

Producing two types of euploid gametes with respect to chromosomal content. This term is applied to one of the sexes in species with chromosomal sex determination; in mammals, males are heterogametic.

Heterogeneitysearch for term

The quality or state of consisting of elements that are not of the same kind or nature.

Heteropolymersearch for term

A polymer composed of different subunits. Some multimeric proteins are normally heteropolymers. Heteropolymers can also be made experimentally, using subunits derived from different species, as a test of homology. Formation of a functional multimeric protein product using subunits from different species is a demonstration of homology.

Heterozygositysearch for term

Having two different allelic forms of a gene, one inherited from each parent, on each of the two homologous chromosomes.

Heterozygotesearch for term

An individual that is heterozygous.

Heterozygoussearch for term

The state of a diploid locus in which different alleles are present at the two copies of that locus (usually one is normal and the other is abnormal).

Hierarchicalsearch for term

A description of a structure in which things are organized into a hierarchy.

Hierarchysearch for term

An organization with few things, or one thing, at the top and with several things below each other thing. An inverted tree structure. An example in computing is a directory hierarchy where each directory may contain files or other directories. In MGI, it refers to terms in a controlled vocabulary such as ones containing Gene Ontology (GO) terms or to the Mouse Anatomical Dictionary.

Histologicsearch for term

Pertaining to the combined microscopic physical features of cells and their surrounding extracellular environment in tissues.

Histologysearch for term

The study of the structure of the cells and their arrangement to constitute tissues and, finally, the association among these to form organs. In pathology, the microscopic process of identifying normal and abnormal morphologic characteristics in tissues, by employing various cytochemical and immunocytochemical stains.

Homogameticsearch for term

Producing a single type of euploid gametes with respect to chromosomal content. This term is applied to one of the sexes in species with chromosomal sex determination; in mammals, females are homogametic.

Homogeneitysearch for term

The quality or state of being similar or comparable in kind or nature or of being uniform throughout in composition or structure.

Homologsearch for term

1. One of a pair of chromosomes that segregate from one another during the first meiotic division. 2. A gene related to a second gene by descent from a common ancestral DNA sequence. The term, homolog, may apply to the relationship between genes separated by the event of speciation (see ortholog) or to the relationship betwen genes separated by the event of genetic duplication (see paralog). 3. A morphological structure in one species related to that in a second species by descent from a common ancestral structure.

Homologous recombinationsearch for term

1. Reciprocal recombination between DNA sequences that have a high degree of similarity. 2. Reciprocal recombination between DNA sequences that have a high degree of similarity and that are located at corresponding positions on homologous chromosomes.

Homologysearch for term

The relationship of any two characters that have descended from a common ancestor. This term can apply to a morphological structure, a chromosome or an individual gene or DNA segment.

Homozygositysearch for term

Having two identical allelic forms of a gene, one inherited from each parent, on each of the two homologous chromosomes.

Homozygotesearch for term

An individual that is homozygous.

Homozygoussearch for term

The state of a diploid locus in which identical alleles are present at both copies of that locus.

Hormonesearch for term

Chemicals produced by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream. Hormones control the actions of certain cells or organs.

Horseradish Peroxidasesearch for term

An enzyme for which a chromogenic substrate exists, commonly used as a label for antibodies.

Hybridsearch for term

1. The offspring of two sexually-reproducing homozygous individuals of different genotypes. 2. As an MGI Mapping Data type, a somatic cell hybrid experiment.

Hybridizationsearch for term

With respect to nucleic acids, "hybridization" refers to the formation of double-stranded DNA, RNA, or DNA/RNA hybrids by complementary base pairing.

Hydrocarbonsearch for term

A group of organic compounds that consist of only hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) atoms and are involved in energy production. They may be cyclic or non-cyclic compounds. They may have double bonds, single bonds or both with carbon forming the backbone.

Hydrophilicsearch for term

Literally, "water-loving"; polar or charged compounds that are soluble in water.

Hydrophobicsearch for term

Literally, "water-fearing"; nonpolar compounds that are immiscible with water. The side chains of some amino acids are nonpolar, and hence protein sequences rich in these amino acids tend to locate to the interior of the protein in its native state, away from the solvent.

Hypermorphic Mutationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which the altered gene product possesses an increased level of activity, or in which the wild-type gene product is expressed at a increased level.

Hypomorphic Mutationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which the altered gene product possesses a reduced level of activity, or in which the wild-type gene product is expressed at a reduced level.

I-Adsearch for term

Antibody against:I-Ad
Label: purified
Clone: GK1.5
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: UCSF MAB core
Source: UCSF
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: depletion
Treatment / Staining Regime: 300 ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Identitysearch for term

In comparison of nucleic acid or protein sequences, the extent to which two sequences have the same nucleotide or amino acid at equivalent positions, usually expressed as a percentage.

IFNgsearch for term

Antibody against:IFNg
Label: APC
Clone: DX5
Isotype: Rat IgM kappa
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 17-5971
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

IFNgsearch for term

Antibody against:IFNg
Label: FITC
Clone: 30-F11
Isotype:
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat # 553079
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

IFNgRasearch for term

Antibody against:IFNgRa
Label: PE
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype:
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553033
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

IgG1 (isotype for CD8b)search for term

Antibody against:IgG1 (isotype for CD8b)
Label: PE-Cy5
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: rat IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553034
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

IL-10search for term

Antibody against:IL-10
Label: PE-Cy7
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: rat IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 552877
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

IL-10search for term

Antibody against:IL-10
Label: FITC
Clone: 53-6.7
Isotype: rat IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553031
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

IL-10Rsearch for term

Antibody against:IL-10R
Label: Fluor 488
Clone: FJK-16S
Isotype: Rat IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: eBioScience # 53-5773
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: okay
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

IL-12search for term

Antibody against:IL-12
Label: FITC
Clone: GL3
Isotype: hamster
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553177
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2 ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

IMAGE Consortiumsearch for term

Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genome Expression Consortium. A collection of a large number of partially sequenced cDNAs. See the homepage of the IMAGE Consortium for further information.

Immunocompetentsearch for term

Having the ability to produce a normal immune response.

Immunodeficiencysearch for term

Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent

Immunofluorescencesearch for term

The detection of an antigen in cytological preparations by using a fluorescent-labeled antibody.

Immunohistochemistrysearch for term

A method of detecting the presence of specific proteins in cells or tissues. Fixed cells or tissue on a microscope slide, made permeable if necessary with a detergent, are reacted with a primary antibody to the specific protein to be assayed. The preparation is then treated with a secondary antibody that has been coupled to an enzyme and which is directed against the primary antibody (e.g., goat anti-rabbit antibody). The preparation is then treated with a chromogenic substrate. Microscopic examination reveals the presence of staining, and hence of the specific protein to be detected.

Immunological Cross-reactionsearch for term

The binding of an antibody to a protein that is different from the protein against which the antibody was raised. This result demonstrates sequence or structural similarity between the two proteins and can be evidence of homology.

Immunologysearch for term

The study of the immune system and its reaction to pathogens, as well as its malfunctions (autoimmune diseases, allergies, rejection of organ transplants).

Immunotherapysearch for term

Therapy designed to induce changes in a patient's immune status in order to treat disease.

Imprintingsearch for term

An epigenetic modification of genes that identifies a given gene as having been inherited from the maternal or paternal parent. In mammals, some genes are expressed primarily from the maternally-inherited or paternally-inherited alleles as a consequence of imprinting.

IMSRsearch for term

International Mouse Strain Resources. A resource of mouse strain information contributed by a number of participating institutions world wide and hosted by MGI and The Jackson Laboratory. IMSR offers web-based strain detail pages with information about the biology, stock, and availability of strains.

In silicosearch for term

Computationally, as opposed to in vitro or in vivo.

in situsearch for term

in the natural or normal place, confined to the site of origin without invasion of neighboring tissues.

In situ Hybridizationsearch for term

A method of detecting the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences within a cytological preparation. A DNA or RNA probe is labeled radioactively or chemically and hybridized to a cytological preparation to detect RNA or to a denatured cytological preparation to detect DNA. The hybridization is detected by autoradiography (for radioactive probes) or by chromogenic reactions or fluorescence (for chemically-labeled probes).

In situ Reporter (Knock in)search for term

An assay type that uses mice containing a targeted mutation in which a reporter gene has replaced an endogenous gene. The two most common reporter genes are lacZ and green fluorescent protein.

In uterosearch for term

A reaction, process or experiment on an embryo in a living mammal rather than in vitro.

In vitrosearch for term

Literally, "in glass", meaning a reaction, process or experiment in a metaphorical test tube rather than in a living organism. In MGI this term also applies to cDNA clones originating from tissue culture cells rather than from tissues from whole organisms.

In vivosearch for term

Literally, "in life", meaning a reaction, process or experiment in a living organism rather than in a metaphorical test tube.

Inbred Strainsearch for term

A strain that has been maintained by sibling (sister x brother) matings for 20 or more consecutive generations. (from JAX Strain Information)

Incrosssearch for term

A cross between two identically homozygous individuals (A/A X A/A).

Inflammatorysearch for term

Relating to inflammation.

Inheritance Modesearch for term

The manner in which a particular genetic trait is expressed when passed from one generation to another (for example, dominant, recessive, semidominant, etc.).

Inhibitorsearch for term

A chemical compound that has the effect of blocking or slowing an enzymatic reaction.

Insertionsearch for term

A type of mutation in which one or more nucleotides is inserted into a DNA sequence. Small insertions within a gene can alter the reading frame, and thus the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein.

Intercrosssearch for term

A cross between two identically hybrid individuals (A/a X A/a).

Intergenicsearch for term

Between genes.

Interimsearch for term

In MGI, a term appended to a gene symbol that is under review.

InterPro domainsearch for term

One of a collection of amino acid sequences of identifiable features in known proteins that can be compared to unknown protein sequences. See InterPro at EMBL/EBI.

Intestinesearch for term

The portion of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the anus. It includes the small intestine and large intestine.

Introgressionsearch for term

Introgression, also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics (particularly plant genetics), is the movement of a gene (gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by repeated backcrossing an interspecific hybrid with one of its parent species. Introgression is a long-term process; it may take many hybrid generations before the backcrossing occurs.

Intronsearch for term

Part of a gene whose sequence is transcribed but not present in a mature mRNA after splicing.

Invasivesearch for term

Marked by a tendency to spread, especially into healthy surrounding tissue.

Inversionsearch for term

A type of mutation in which a length of DNA is broken in two positions and repaired in such a way that the medial segment is now present in reverse order. Inversions range in size from those large enough to be visible cytogenetically to those involving only a few base pairs.

Ionizationsearch for term

Any process by which a neutral atom gains or loses electrons, thus acquiring a net charge, as the dissociation of a substance in solution into ions or ion production by the passage of radioactive particles.

Irradiationsearch for term

Treatment with radiation, generally meaning exposure to ionizing radiation or radiation of wavelengths shorter than those of visible light.

Isogenicsearch for term

Characterized by essentially identical genes. Identical twins are isogenic.

Karyotypesearch for term

A description of the condensed chromosomes of a eukaryote as they are seen at metaphase. Additional details are revealed by a variety of staining techniques that produce banded chromosomes. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

kbsearch for term

Kilobase. Unit of DNA or RNA sequence equal to 1000 nucleotides.

Kinetochoresearch for term

A structure formed adjacent to the centromere of a condensed chromosome that allows the chromosome to attach to microtubules of the meiotic or mitotic spindle.

Knock insearch for term

A casual term for a type of targeted mutation in which an alteration in gene function other than a loss-of-function allele is produced.

Knock-outsearch for term

A casual term for a type of targeted mutation in which an amorphic (loss-of-function) allele is produced by homologous recombination. Knockouts are often created in laboratory organisms such as yeast or mice so that scientists can study the knockout organism as a model for a particular disease.

langerin/CD207search for term

Antibody against:langerin/CD207
Label: FITC
Clone: 39-10-8
Isotype: Mouse IgG3
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553610
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

langerin/CD207search for term

Antibody against:langerin/CD207
Label: PE
Clone: XMG1.2
Isotype: Rat IgG1
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 554412
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Lentivirussearch for term

A genus of the family Retroviridae consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.

Leukemiasearch for term

A malignant (clonal) hematologic disorder, involving hematopoietic stem cells and characterized by the presence of primitive or atypical myeloid or lymphoid cells in the bone marrow and the blood. Leukemias are classified as acute or chronic based on the degree of cellular differentiation and the predominant cell type present. Leukemia is usually associated with anemia, fever, hemorrhagic episodes, and splenomegaly. Common leukemias include acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic or precursor lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Treatment is vital to patient survival; untreated, the natural course of acute leukemias is normally measured in weeks or months, while that of chronic leukemias is more often measured in months or years.

Librarysearch for term

In molecular biology, a "library" is a complex mixture of recombinant DNA molecules in a suitable cloning vector representing either the entire genome of an organism (a genomic library) or the messenger RNA population of a whole organism, cell type, or tissue type (a cDNA library).

Ligandsearch for term

A molecule that binds to a receptor protein.

Ligatesearch for term

In molecular biology, to join two separate DNA or RNA segments to form a single DNA or RNA molecule enzymatically.

Linkagesearch for term

The property displayed by two genes that do not segregate independently of each other. Genes that are linked are on the same chromosome.

Linkage Analysissearch for term

The construction of a linkage map through the analysis of meiotic recombination frequencies between pairs of genes.

Linkage Mapsearch for term

A type of genetic map showing relative gene positions based on meiotic recombination frequencies. The unit of measurement is the centimorgan.

Locussearch for term

Literally, "place". The location of a gene or set of genes on a chromosome.

LOD scoresearch for term

A statistical estimate of whether two loci are likely to lie near each other on a chromosome and are therefore likely to be inherited together. Lod stands for "log of the odds ratio." In this case, the odds ratio is the likelihood that two markers are linked divided by the likelihood that they are not linked. A LOD score of three or more is generally taken to indicate that the two loci are close.

LOHsearch for term

Loss of heterozygosity.

Loss of Heterozygositysearch for term

A genetic event that can occur in the dividing cells of a diploid organism heterozygous for one or more markers, in which a daughter cell becomes homozygous or hemizygous for one or more alleles through mitotic recombination, deletion, or gene conversion. "Loss of heterozygosity (LOH)" events are often important steps in tumor progression.

Loss-of-function Mutationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which the altered gene product lacks the molecular function of the wild-type gene. Synonyms: Amorphic Mutation, Null Mutation.

loxP Sequencesearch for term

A 34 base pair DNA sequence recognized by the site-specific recombination enzyme Cre.

Ly-6G (Gr-1)search for term

Antibody against:Ly-6G (Gr-1)
Label: PE
Clone: JES5-16E3
Isotype: rat IgG2b
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 12-7101
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Ly-6G (Gr-1)search for term

Antibody against:Ly-6G (Gr-1)
Label: PE
Clone: C17.8
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 12-7123
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Ly6Csearch for term

Antibody against:Ly6C
Label: FITC
Clone: RB-6-8C5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: commercial
Source: eBioScience # 11-5931
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Ly6Csearch for term

Antibody against:Ly6C
Label: purified
Clone: RB-6-8C5
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: UCSF MAB core
Source: UCSF
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: depletion
Treatment / Staining Regime: 100ug
Performance: in evaluation
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Lymphsearch for term

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells.

Lymphomasearch for term

A malignant (clonal) proliferation of B- lymphocytes or T- lymphocytes which involves the lymph nodes, bone marrow and/or extranodal sites. This category includes Non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphomas.

Magnetic Resonance Imagingsearch for term

Imaging that uses radiofrequency waves and a strong magnetic field rather than x-rays to provide amazingly clear and detailed pictures of internal organs and tissues. The technique is valuable for the diagnosis of many pathologic conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, stroke, and joint and musculoskeletal disorders.

Major Histocompatibility Congenicsearch for term

A congenic strain in which the donor allele transferred to the host strain background is a major histocompatibility gene.

Malignantsearch for term

 Refers to abnormal cell activity manifested by decreased control over growth and function, causing tumor growth or spread into surrounding tissue and adverse effects to the host.

Malignant Neoplasmsearch for term

A tumor composed of atypical neoplastic, often pleomorphic cells that invade other tissues. Malignant neoplasms often metastasize to distant anatomic sites and may recur after excision. The most common malignant neoplasms are carcinomas (adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas), Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, leukemias, melanomas, and sarcomas.

Mammalian Phenotype Ontologysearch for term

A controlled vocabulary that provides standardized terms for describing phenotypic characteristics of mammalian systems. See the Mammalian Phenotype Browser for more information, and see the Open Biological Ontologies (OBO) site for further information about other structured, shared vocabularies for use within biological domains.

Markersearch for term

1. Any biological feature that can be positioned with respect to other features on a chromosome, by genetic, physical or other mapping methods. For example, a gene, anonymous DNA segment, mutation, or phenotype. 2. A feature that distinguishes a particular biological state. For example, an expression profile of natural or engineered genes, or a characteristic morphology. 3. In MGI, a Marker is an object for which unique official nomenclature must be assigned. Markers in MGI can be of type: Gene, DNA Segment, Cytogenetic Marker, QTL, Transgene, Pseudogene, BAC/YAC end, Other Genome Feature, Complex/Cluster/Region

Mass Spectrometrysearch for term

An analytical technique wherein ions are separate according to their ratio of charge to mass. From the mass spectrum produced, the atomic weight of the particle can be deduced.

Megabasesearch for term

Unit of DNA or RNA sequence equal to one million nucleotides.

Meiosissearch for term

A pair of nuclear divisions forming gametes wherein the number of chromosomes is reduced from the diploid to the haploid number; resulting cells normally contain one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes.

Melanomasearch for term

A malignant, usually aggressive tumor composed of atypical, neoplastic melanocytes. Most often, melanomas arise in the skin (cutaneous melanomas) and include the following histologic subtypes: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma, and lentigo maligna melanoma. Cutaneous melanomas may arise from acquired or congenital melanocytic or dysplastic nevi. Melanomas may also arise in other anatomic sites including the gastrointestinal system, eye, urinary tract, and reproductive system. Melanomas frequently metastasize to lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain.

Membranesearch for term

1. A phospholipid bilayer that forms a hydrophobic barrier around and within cells. 2. A sheet of nylon, nitrocellulose, or similar material used to create a replica of a gel for Southern blots, Northern blots, or Western blots.

Mendeliansearch for term

1. That type of inheritance in which a specific trait is affected by a set of alleles of a single gene. 2. That type of inheritance in which genetic information is transmitted by one or more nuclear genes, as opposed to cytoplasmic or epigenetic mechanisms.

Messenger RNAsearch for term

A class of RNA molecule containing protein-coding information in its nucleotide sequence that can be translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein.

Metabolic Processsearch for term

Organic processes in a cell or organism that are necessary to sustain life. Cellular metabolism can be divided into two categories. Anabolism entails the construction of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, while catabolism involves the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules.

Metadatasearch for term

Data about data. In data processing, metadata is definitional data providing information about or documentation of other data managed within an application or environment, for example, data about: data elements or attributes (name, size, data type, etc.), records or data structures (length, fields, columns, etc.) and data (where located, how associated, what ownership, and so on). Metadata may include descriptive information about the context, quality and condition, or characteristics of the data.

Metastasissearch for term

The spread or migration of cancer cells from one part of the body (the organ in which it first appeared) to another. The secondary tumor contains cells that are like those in the original (primary) tumor. For example, breast cancer cells may spread (metastasize) to the lungs and cause the growth of a new tumor. When this happens, the disease is called metastatic breast cancer.

MGDsearch for term

Mouse Genome Database. One of several databases integrated into MGI, containing data on the genes of the mouse.

MGIsearch for term

Mouse Genome Informatics. The collection of bioinformatics projects at The Jackson Laboratory including MGD, GXD, and MTB.

MHC class IIsearch for term

Antibody against:MHC class II
Label: PE
Clone: 5D10
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 12-5863
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Micellessearch for term

A micelle is an aggregate of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid. A typical micelle in aqueous solution forms an aggregate with the hydrophilic "head" regions in contact with surrounding solvent, sequestering the hydrophobic single tail regions in the micelle centre. This phase is caused by the insufficient packing issues of single tailed lipids in a bilayer. Micelle formation is essential for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and complicated lipids within the body.

Microarraysearch for term

A piece of glass or plastic on which different samples have been affixed at separate locations in an ordered manner thus forming a microscopic array. The samples are usually DNA fragments but may also be antibodies, other proteins, or tissues.

MicroRNAsearch for term

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of noncoding RNA molecules, generally 21 to 24 nucleotides in length, which are usually cleaved from a larger hairpin-containing RNA (itself often processed from some portion of mRNA). miRNAs are conserved through evolution, and their abundance and expression patterns are suggestive of diverse regulatory roles.

Microsatellite Markersearch for term

A short (up to several hundred base pairs) segment of DNA that consists of multiple tandem repeats of a two or three base-pair sequence. Microsatellites expand and contract (that is, add or remove repeat units) with a frequency much higher than other types of mutations, making them useful as polymorphic markers in closely related mouse strains.

Microtubulesearch for term

A cytoskeletal element of eukaryotic cells that is a long, generally straight, hollow tube with an external diameter of 24 nm, consisting of polymerized monomers of tubulin. Microtubules make up the bulk of the spindle.

Minor Histocompatibility Congenicsearch for term

A congenic strain in which the donor allele transferred to the host strain background is a minor histocompatibility gene.

MIT markersearch for term

One of a large series of microsatellite markers in the mouse, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. These markers have been used to align the physical and linkage maps in mouse.

Mitochondriasearch for term

The organelles that generate energy in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria have their own genome encoding a subset of the proteins found in mitochondria; the mitochondrial genome uses an alternate genetic code.

Mitochondrial genesearch for term

A gene contained within the mitochondrial genome of a eukaryote, transmitted independently of the nuclear genome. The mitochondrial genome is transmitted maternally (from the female parent).

Mitosissearch for term

The division of the replicated chromosomes of a eukaryotic cell into two daughter nuclei that are genetically identical to that of the original cell. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Mobile Genetic Elementsearch for term

A DNA segment carried within the chromosomes that is capable of moving to new sites in the genome other than by mutation.

Molecular Functionsearch for term

Refers to the tasks or activities characteristic of particular gene products. For example, transcription factor refers to one of a number of proteins performing similar tasks. In the GO Project vocabularies, Molecular Function is a primary class of terms. See the GO Consortium site for further information.

Molecular Mutationsearch for term

A description of the type of molecular event giving rise to a specific mutation, for example, deletion, inversion, point mutation, and so on.

Monoclonal Antibodysearch for term

An antibody produced by cultured cells that have their origin in a single antibody-producing cell and which is therefore of a single molecular type, in contrast to the polyclonal antibodies normally found in the serum of an immunized animal.

Monosomysearch for term

The condition of having a single chromosome of a particular type; lacking a homologous chromosome. Normal male mice are monosomic for the X chromosome.

Morphantssearch for term

An organism which has been treated with a Morpholino antisense oligo to temporarily knock down expression of a targeted gene is called a Morphant.

Morpholinosearch for term

An antisense oligonucleotide modified to make them more stable than RNA. Morpholinos are used to inhibit translation or splicing of particular mRNAs. The resulting reduction in gene function is sometimes casually referred to as a knock-down.

Mosaicsearch for term

An individual consisting of cells of two or more genotypes. One example is that of a normal female mammal heterozygous for different alleles of X-chromosome genes; because of the process of X-inactivation, such females consist of two cell types, each with a different X chromosome inactivated. This is an unusual example because there is no actual difference in genotype between the two cell types, but rather there is an epigenetic difference.

Mouse IgG1, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Mouse IgG1, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: ?
Clone: commercial
Isotype: PE
Type: Pharmingen 03005A
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Mouse IgG1, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Mouse IgG1, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: MOPC-21
Clone: commercial
Isotype: FITC
Type: BioLegend 400108
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Mouse IgG2b, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Mouse IgG2b, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: MPC-11
Clone: commercial
Isotype: PE
Type: BioLegend 400312
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Mouse Mammary Tumor Virussearch for term

Type B retrovirus. Etiologic agent of mouse mammary tumors. Transmitted horizontally through the lactating mammary gland and vertically through the germline. Mechanism of tumorigenesis involves the activation of cellular int genes by promoter/enhancer insertion.

MPsearch for term

Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. An extensive ontology of mammalian phenotype classification terms with definitions.

MTBsearch for term

Mouse Tumor Biology Database. One of several databases at MGI, containing data on the mouse tumor biology.

Mult1 (rat too)search for term

Antibody against:Mult1 (rat too)
Label: PE
Clone: PK136
Isotype: mouse IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 12-5941
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Mutagensearch for term

An agent that causes mutations.

Mutagenesissearch for term

Production of genetic alterations by any technique, including chemicals, radiation, recombination, or other molecular biology methods.

Mutantsearch for term

An altered form of an individual, organism, population, or genetic character that differs from the corresponding wild type due to one or more alterations (mutations).

Mutant ES Cell Linesearch for term

A specific sub-line of embryonic stem (ES) cells containing an introduced mutation.

Mutationsearch for term

1. The process through which genes undergo a structural change. 2. Any permanent change in DNA, i.e., in its nucleotide sequence. Examples include chromosome rearrangements and point mutations.
See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Myeloproliferationsearch for term

Myeloproliferation involves both medullary and extramedullary proliferation of bone marrow constituents, such as erythroblasts, granulocytes, megakaryocytes, and fibroblasts.

Myxomasearch for term

A benign soft tissue neoplasm characterized by the presence of spindle and stellate cells, lobulated growth pattern, and myxoid stroma formation.

Nanoparticlesearch for term

A small, stable particle whose size is measured in nanometers. These particles are used in various biomedical applications in which they can be utilized as drug carriers or imaging agents. Various targeting agents, such as antibodies, drugs, imaging agents, and reporters can be attached to the surface of a nanoparticle.

NCBIsearch for term

National Center for Biotechnology Information.

NCBI Gene Modelsearch for term

A description of a gene associated with the mouse genome assembly from NCBI. The NCBI gene model includes the coordinates of each intron and exon, as well as the beginning and end of the transcript.

Neomorphic Mutationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which the altered gene product possesses a novel molecular function or a novel pattern of gene expression. Neomorphic mutations are usually dominant or semidominant.

Neonatalsearch for term

Newborn.

Neoplasmsearch for term

A benign or malignant tissue growth resulting from uncontrolled cell proliferation. Benign neoplastic cells resemble normal cells without exhibiting significant cytologic atypia, while malignant cells exhibit overt signs such as dysplastic features, atypical mitotic figures, necrosis, nuclear pleomorphism, and anaplasia. Representative examples of benign neoplasms include papillomas, cystadenomas, and lipomas; malignant neoplasms include carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, and leukemias.

Neovascularizationsearch for term

Growth of new blood vessels feeding a tissue, as with a tumor.

Neuroglial Tumorsearch for term

A benign or malignant brain and spinal cord tumor that arises from glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells). Tumors that arise from astrocytes are called astrocytic tumors or astrocytomas. Tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes are called oligodendroglial tumors. Tumors that arise from ependymal cells are called ependymomas.

NHGRIsearch for term

National Human Genome Research Institute.

NK1.1search for term

Antibody against:NK1.1
Label: PE
Clone: PK136
Isotype:
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 557391
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

NK1.1search for term

Antibody against:NK1.1
Label: PE
Clone: A10
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 12-5872
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

NK1.1search for term

Antibody against:NK1.1
Label: PE
Clone: RD-41
Isotype: mose IgG1
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 12-5756
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

NKG2Dsearch for term

Antibody against:NKG2D
Label: PE
Clone: CX1
Isotype: rat IgG2b
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 12-5881
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Non-Hodgkin Lymphomasearch for term

Distinct from Hodgkin lymphoma both morphologically and biologically, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is characterized by the absence of Reed-Sternberg cells, can occur at any age, and usually presents as a localized or generalized lymphadenopathy associated with fever and weight loss. The clinical course varies according to the morphologic type. NHL is clinically classified as indolent, aggressive, or having a variable clinical course. NHL can be of B-or T-/NK-cell lineage.

Non-Mendeliansearch for term

1. That type of inheritance in which a specific trait is affected by a set of alleles of a multiple genes. Synonym: Polygenic 2. That type of inheritance in which genetic information is transmitted other than by nuclear genes.

Noncoding RNAsearch for term

An RNA molecule that functions structurally or catalytically (see ribozyme) without being translated. Noncoding RNAs lack conserved open reading frames. One example is Xist.

Noninbred Stocksearch for term

A stock that is known to be not inbred, or intentionally kept to prevent it from becoming inbred.

Northern Blotsearch for term

An assay that detects specific RNA molecules using a DNA or RNA probe with sequence similarity. Samples are subjected to electrophoresis on a slab gel. A replica of the gel is then made on a membrane by capillary transfer. Specific RNA sequences are then detected on the membrane with a radioactively- or chemically-labeled probe. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Nucleic Acidsearch for term

DNA or RNA. Each of these compounds consists of a backbone of sugar molecules ribose for RNA and deoxyribose for DNA linked by single phosphate groups. Attached to the sugars of the backbone are any of four nitrogenous bases, A, T, C or G for DNA and A, U, C or G for RNA. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Nucleotidesearch for term

A subunit of DNA or RNA consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA).

Nucleotide Repeat Expansionsearch for term

A type of mutation in which a set of tandemly repeated sequences replicates inaccurately to increase the number of repeats. An example of this kind of mutation in humans is the FMR1 gene.

Nucleotide Substitutionsearch for term

A point mutation.

Nucleussearch for term

The organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains the chromosomes. In most types of eukaryotic cells, the nucleus breaks down as chromosomes condense during cell division. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Nude Mousesearch for term

A hairless mutant mouse with thymic hypoplasia, lacking T-cells. They are unable to reject transplants.

Null Mutationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which the altered gene product lacks the molecular function of the wild-type gene. Synonyms: Amorphic Mutation, Loss-of-function Mutation.

Numerical Aberrationsearch for term

A change in the number of chromosomes from the wild-type number in the absence of any chromosome rearrangement.

Offsetsearch for term

In MGI, the limits of the position of a gene on a chromosome on the cytogenetic map or the linkage map.

Oligonucleotidesearch for term

A short length of nucleic acid.

OMIMsearch for term

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. A database of human inherited diseases and genes.

Oncogenesearch for term

A gene that normally directs cell growth. If mutated or overexpressed in a dominant fashion, it can release the cell from normal restraints on growth. It alone or in concert with other changes, converts the cell into a tumor cell. Alterations can be inherited or caused by an environmental exposure to carcinogens.

Oncogenesissearch for term

The causation or production of tumors.

Oncologysearch for term

The study of tumors encompassing the physical, chemical, and biologic properties.

Ontologysearch for term

To researchers interested in the representation of biological knowledge by computer programs and databases, "ontology" refers to a controlled vocabulary, or set of such vocabularies, used to describe biological features within a specified domain of biological knowledge.

Open Reading Frame (ORF)search for term

A length of nucleotide sequence that lacks termination codons in a given reading frame.

Organellesearch for term

One of a number of different kinds of membrane-bound substructures within a eukaryotic cell. Examples include the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.

Organism Strainsearch for term

A population or type of organisms that is genetically different from others of the same species and possessing a set of defined characteristics.

Orthologsearch for term

One of a set of homologous genes that have diverged from each other as a consequence of speciation. For example, the alpha globin genes of mouse and chick are orthologs.

Orthologoussearch for term

Occurring in one species but corresponding to one in another species that is related via a common ancestral species.

Orthologysearch for term

The relationship of any two homologous characters whose common ancestor lies in the most recent common ancestor of the taxa being considered. In MGI, assertions of Mammalian Homology imply presumed orthology.

Orthotopic Transplantsearch for term

Transplantation of a donor organ graft into the same site as that occupied by the original organ that failed

Osteosarcomasearch for term

 A usually aggressive malignant bone-forming mesenchymal tumor, predominantly affecting adolescents and young adults. It usually involves bones and less frequently extraosseous sites. It often involves the long bones (particularly distal femur, proximal tibia, and proximal humerus). Pain with or without a palpable mass is the most frequent clinical symptom. It may spread to other anatomic sites, particularly the lungs.

Other Genome Featuresearch for term

In MGI, "Other Genome Feature" refers to any feature of the genome that is considered to have biological significance but that cannot be classified with defined marker types. Major classes of other genome features include Endogenous Viruses and Retrotransposons, Integration Sites, and Repetitive Elements. An additional class of such features includes genomic segments that function or are biologically significant as DNA elements.

Outbred Strainsearch for term

Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.

Outcrosssearch for term

A type of genetic cross in which an organism is crossed to a strain from which it was not recently derived.

P1search for term

A bacteriophage with a genome size of over 100 kb that has been used as a cloning vector.

PACsearch for term

P1 Artificial Chromosome. A type of cloning vector derived from bacteriophage P1 that allows foreign DNA segments to be cloned in bacteria. The capacity of a PAC is up to 100 kb of foreign DNA.

Papillomasearch for term

A benign epithelial neoplasm that projects above the surrounding epithelial surface and consists of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma.

Paralogsearch for term

One of a set of homologous genes that have diverged from each other as a consequence of genetic duplication. For example, the mouse alpha globin and beta globin genes are paralogs. The relationship between mouse alpha globin and chick beta globin is also considered paralogous.

Paralogysearch for term

The relationship of any two homologous characters that arose by a genetic duplication.

Parentsearch for term

In MGI, this term refers to terms in a hierarchical controlled vocabulary such as those containing Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A "parent" of a term is one any number of levels above it in the hierarchy from which it is descended. For example, the GO term enzyme [GO:0003824] is a parent to the GO term alcohol dehydrogenase [GO:0004022].

Pathogensearch for term

An agent of disease; a disease producer.

Pathologysearch for term

The medical science, and specialty practice, concerned with all aspects of disease, but with special reference to the essential nature, causes, and development of abnormal conditions, as well as the structural and functional changes that result from the disease processes. Informally used to mean the result of such an examination.

PCRsearch for term

Polymerase Chain Reaction. A method of amplifying specific DNA segments based on hybridization to a primer pair. A DNA sample is denatured by heating in the presence of a vast molar excess of short single-stranded DNA primers (around 20 nucleotides) whose sequence is chosen based on the target sequence. The reaction mixture also contains a thermostable DNA polymerase, dNTPs, and buffer. The primer sequences are selected so that they: 1. are derived from opposite strands of the target sequence, 2. have their 3' ends facing each other, and 3. are separated by a length of DNA that can be reliably synthesized in vitro. The sample is then cooled to a temperature that allows primer annealing and in vitro replication. The sample is subjected to multiple cycles of denaturation and cooling to allow multiple rounds of replication. The quantity of the target sequence doubles during each cycle, causing the target sequence to be amplified, while other DNA sequences in the sample remain unamplified. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

PD-1search for term

Antibody against:PD-1
Label: PE
Clone: MP6-XT22
Isotype: rat IgG1
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 12-7321
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

PD-L1search for term

Antibody against:PD-L1
Label: purified
Clone: T2.5
Isotype: mouse IgG1
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 14-9024-82
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: blocking
Treatment / Staining Regime: 10ug/ml
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

PD-L1search for term

Antibody against:PD-L1
Label: purified
Clone: PK136
Isotype: mouse IgG2a
Type: UCSF MAB core
Source: UCSF
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: depletion
Treatment / Staining Regime: 100 ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

PD-L2search for term

Antibody against:PD-L2
Label: PE
Clone: 6C2
Isotype: rat IgG2b
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 12-9021-80
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

PDCA-1search for term

Antibody against:PDCA-1
Label: Alex488
Clone: T2.5
Isotype: mouse IgG1
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 53-9024-80
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Pedigreesearch for term

A record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a specific condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

Penetrancesearch for term

The fraction of individuals of a given genotype that show a particular phenotype, usually expressed as a percentage.

Perinatalsearch for term

Around the time of birth.

Phagesearch for term

1. A bacteriophage, a virus capable of infecting bacteria. 2. A type of cloning vector derived from a bacteriophage, usually capable of carrying an amount of foreign DNA that is at the upper range of that carried by a plasmid.

Phagemidsearch for term

A type of cloning vector derived from a phage and a plasmid. Phagemids are capable of carrying an amount of foreign DNA comparable to a plasmid, but have some special feature such as the ability to produce single-stranded DNA.

Pharmacokineticssearch for term

The characteristic movements of drugs within biological systems, as affected by absorption, distribution, binding, elimination, biotransformation, and excretion; particularly the rates of such movements.

Pharmacologysearch for term

The study of pharmacologic agents. This includes the preparation, compounding, and dispensing of drugs, as well as the characteristics and properties of drugs, their effects on the body, and how they are metabolized and eliminated from the body.

Phenocopysearch for term

The condition of an individual resembling that of a phenotype produced by a particular mutation by some experimental treatment other than the presence of that mutation, e.g., drug treatment.

Phenomesearch for term

A phenome is the set of all phenotypes expressed by a cell, tissue, organ, organism, or species. Just as the genome and proteome signify all of an organism's genes and proteins, the phenome represents the sum total of its phenotypic traits.

Phenotypesearch for term

The assemblage of traits or outward appearance of an individual. It is the product of interactions between genes and between genes and the environment.

Phosphorimagingsearch for term

The detection of radioactivity using "phosphor" compounds that emit visible light when exposed to radiation. Phosphorimaging instruments produce images of, for example, Southern blots and Northern blots, that are comparable to those produced by autoradiography, with superior quantitation.

Phosphorylationsearch for term

The creation of a phosphate derivative of an organic molecule. This is usually achieved by transferring a phosphate group from ATP via the action of a kinase.

Phycoerythrinsearch for term

A fluorescent dye that can be coupled to antibodies for the detection of proteins on Western blots using fluorography.

Physical Mapsearch for term

A map of DNA showing distances between and within genes or specified markers measured in base pairs of DNA. It is based on the direct measurement of DNA.

Plasmidsearch for term

A type of cloning vector derived from autonomously-replicating extrachromosomal circular DNAs in bacteria. The amount of foreign DNA that can be carried in a plasmid is small, ranging up to about 20 kb.

Pleiotropysearch for term

The production of a phenotype affecting multiple traits by a single mutation.

Pluripotentsearch for term

Able to mature or develop in any of several ways.

Point Mutationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which a single nucleotide is changed to one of the other three possible nucleotides.

Polyadenylationsearch for term

The process by which a series of adenosine (A) ribonucleotides is added to the 3' end of a spliced RNA to make a mature mRNA. This addition to the RNA is sometimes referred to as a poly-A tail, and commonly contains several hundred bases.

Polygenicsearch for term

A trait determined by multiple genes.

Polymorphismsearch for term

An instance of genotypic variation within a population.

Postnatalsearch for term

After birth.

Precancerous Conditionsearch for term

A pathological process with signs indicating it may become cancerous. Representative examples include leukoplakia, dysplastic nevus, actinic keratosis, xeroderma pigmentosum, and intraepithelial neoplasia.

Preclinicalsearch for term

Refers to in vitro testing or in vivo animal testing before clinical trials in humans are to be carried out.

Premalignantsearch for term

Descriptive of a condition that may or is likely to become cancerous.

Prenatalsearch for term

The time period after impregnation and before birth.

Primersearch for term

A single-stranded nucleic acid that can "prime" replication of a template. More specifically, a single-stranded nucleic acid capable of hybridizing to a template single-stranded nucleic acid in such a way as to leave part of the template to the 3' end of the primer single-stranded. DNA polymerase can then synthesize a new strand starting from the 3' end of the primer and adding nucleotides to the growing strand by base complementarity to the template. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Probesearch for term

1. In molecular biology, a nucleic acid that has been labeled either radioactively or chemically that allows the detection of nucleic acids with sequence similarity in a sample by hybridization. Probes are used to detect DNA on membranes in Southern blots, to detect RNA on membranes in Northern blots, and either DNA or RNA in cytological preparations for in situ hybridization. 2. In MGI, the term "probe" applies not only to nucleic acid probes detected as described above, but also to primers for PCR. This usage is not common outside of MGI.

Prokaryotesearch for term

Cell or organism lacking a membrane-bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other subcellular compartments. Bacteria are prokaryotes.

Promotersearch for term

One of the necessary regulatory elements of a gene. The promoter is the site on DNA to which RNA polymerase binds and initiates transcription. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Pronucleussearch for term

The nucleus of either the ovum or the spermatozoon following fertilization. Thus, in the fertilized ovum, there are two pronuclei, one originating from the ovum, the other from the spermatozoon that brought about fertilization; they approach each other, but do not fuse until just before the first cleavage, when each pronucleus loses its membrane to release its contents. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]

Proteinsearch for term

A polymer of amino acids. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Protein Domainsearch for term

A region of a protein responsible for a particular function, as recognized experimentally and by the occurrence of similar segments in other proteins sharing that function, e.g., a DNA binding domain.

Protein Histochemistrysearch for term

1. A method of detecting a particular enzyme in a cell or tissue sample. A sample of cells or tissue is fixed, then treated with a chromogenic substrate for the enzyme to be detected. Microscopic examination reveals the presence of staining, and hence of the specific protein to be detected. 2. Immunohistochemistry.

Proteomesearch for term

The complete collection of all proteins encoded by the genome of an organism.

Proteomicssearch for term

Systematic analysis of protein expression of normal and diseased tissues that involves the separation, identification and characterization of all of the proteins in an organism.

Proto-Oncogenesearch for term

Oncogenes are altered forms of normal cellular genes called proto-oncogene. Many proto-oncogenes are homologous to viral oncogenes and involved in the control of cell proliferation or differentiation. Mutations, amplifications or rearrangements of proto-oncogenes lead to upregulated or deregulated cell growth and allow them to function as oncogenes.

Pseudoautosomalsearch for term

The small region of homology shared between the X chromosome and the Y chromosome in mammals. All crossovers between the X and Y chromosomes occur in this region.

Pseudogenesearch for term

A non-functional locus derived from a functional locus either by 1. replicative transfer, such as transposition, retrotransposition or duplication or by 2. mutation, where the non-functional locus is not considered an allele of an existing functional locus in the mouse.

Purinesearch for term

One of the bases of nucleic acids, either adenine (A) or guanine (G).

Pyrimidinesearch for term

One of the bases of nucleic acids, cytosine (C), thymine (T) or uracil (U).

QTLsearch for term

See Quantitative Trait Locus.

Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL)search for term

1. A heritable genetic region that affects a measurable characteristic of the animal (e.g., body weight or blood pressure). 2. The type of marker described by statistical association to quantitative variation in a particular phenotypic trait that is thought to be controlled by the cumulative action of alleles at multiple loci.

Radiationsearch for term

1. Electromagnetic energy: gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared light, microwaves and radio waves. In mouse genetics, this term generally refers to gamma rays and X rays. 2. Subatomic particles emitted by the decay of unstable isotopes: electrons (beta particles) and helium nuclei (alpha particles). Common unstable isotopes in molecular biology are tritium (3H),which emits low-energy beta particles, 35S, which emits beta particles of moderate energy, and 32P, which emits high-energy beta particles. 3. Subatomic particles from a particle accelerator, such as protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Radiation Hybrid Mappingsearch for term

A type of genetic mapping providing resolution between relatively low-resolution linkage analysis and high-resolution physical mapping by the assembly of contiguous cloned DNA segments. The method consists of fusing irradiated cultured cells of one species with cultured cells of a different species. A panel of hybrid cells is then tested for the occurrence of pairs of markers. The closer two markers are to each other, the more likely that both are present in an individual hybrid cell. Radiation hybrid mapping data for the mouse are available at The Jackson Laboratory Mouse Radiation Hybrid Database and at MGI.

Radiation Induced Mutationsearch for term

A mutation induced by irradiation, in mouse usually gamma-ray or X-ray.

Rae1 deltasearch for term

Antibody against:Rae1 delta
Label: purified
Clone: MTS510
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 14-9924-82
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: blocking
Treatment / Staining Regime: 10ug/ml
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Rae1 gammasearch for term

Antibody against:Rae1 gamma
Label: purified
Clone: 1D11
Isotype: mouse IgG1
Type: commercial
Source: R&D Cat# MAB1835
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: in vivo blocking
Treatment / Staining Regime: 100ug ip
Performance: not determined
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Rat IgG1, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgG1, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: R3-34
Clone: commercial
Isotype: PE
Type: Pharmingen 553925
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Rat IgG1, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgG1, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: RTK2071
Clone: commercial
Isotype: PE
Type: BioLegend 400407
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Rat IgG1, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgG1, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: RTK2071
Clone: commercial
Isotype: Biotin
Type: BioLegend 400403
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Rat IgG2a, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgG2a, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: RTK2758
Clone: commercial
Isotype: PE
Type: BioLegend 400508
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Rat IgG2a, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgG2a, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: ?
Clone: commercial
Isotype: PE
Type: Pharmingen 11025A
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Rat IgG2a, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgG2a, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: R35-95
Clone: commercial
Isotype: FITC
Type: Pharmingen 11024C, new = 553929
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Rat IgG2a, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgG2a, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: RTK2758
Clone: commercial
Isotype: FITC
Type: BioLegend 400506
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Rat IgG2b, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgG2b, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: RTK4530
Clone: commercial
Isotype: PE
Type: BioLegend 400608
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Rat IgG2b, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgG2b, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: A95-1
Clone: commercial
Isotype: Biotin
Type: Pharmingen 553987
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Rat IgG2b, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgG2b, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: RTK4530
Clone: commercial
Isotype: FITC
Type: BioLegend 400605
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Rat IgM, ksearch for term

Antibody against:Rat IgM, k
Type: Isotype Control
Label: RTK2118
Clone: commercial
Isotype: PE
Type: BioLegend 400807
Source:
Used for:
Treatment / Staining Regime:
Performance:
Information provided by the lab of: Robert Schreiber

Reading Framesearch for term

One of three ways of reading a single strand of nucleic acid sequence as codons.

Reagentsearch for term

Any natural or synthetic substance used in a chemical or biological reaction in order to produce, identify, or measure another substance.

Recessivesearch for term

One of a series of terms applied to the phenotypic effect of a particular allele in reference to another allele (usually the standard wild-type allele) with respect to a given trait. An allele "a" is said to be recessive with respect to the allele "A" if the A/A homozygote and the A/a heterozygote are phenotypically identical and different from the a/a homozygote. An example is the nonagouti (a) allele of the mouse. A(+)/A(+) and (+)/a mice have identical agouti banding of individual hairs in the coat, while a/a mice have hairs of uniform color.

Recombinant Congenic Strainsearch for term

Strains formed by crossing two inbred strains, followed by a few backcrosses to one of the parental strains, with subsequent inbreeding without selection.

Recombinant Inbred Strainsearch for term

In mouse, an inbred strain of animals started from a cross between two different inbred strains followed by inbreeding for at least 20 generations. A panel of recombinant inbred strains derived from a cross between two parental strains can be used to establish linkage between any marker that is polymorphic between the parental strains and other polymorphic markers that have been typed in each strain in the panel. See also the Rules for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains.

Recombinationsearch for term

Transfer of information from one DNA molecule to another. Recombination may be reciprocal, in which case the products are equivalent to breakage of the two DNA molecules and rejoining of the broken ends to form new molecules. Recombination may also be nonreciprocal, in which case the product is equivalent to transfer of information from the donor DNA molecule to the recipient DNA molecule, with no change in the donor DNA molecule. Reciprocal recombination events are also called crossovers.

RefSeqsearch for term

The collection of integrated, non-redundant sequences including genomic DNA, transcript (RNA), and protein products at NCBI.

Regressionsearch for term

Return to a former state; a subsidence of the symptoms of a disease process; in cancer, a decrease in the size of a tumor or in the extent of cancer in the body.

Regulatory Elementsearch for term

A DNA sequence that is required for a gene on the same DNA molecule to be transcribed, or to be transcribed in the proper cell type(s) and developmental stage(s).

Regulatory Genesearch for term

A gene whose function is to regulate the expression of a structural gene.

Replicationsearch for term

The process of synthesizing a copy of a DNA molecule from nucleotides using information contained within one strand of a template DNA molecule. The new strand of DNA is synthesized from the 5' end to the 3' end.

Reporter Genesearch for term

A gene whose product is easily detected and not ordinarily present in an organism or cell type under study that is expressed as part of a DNA construct introduced experimentally. Bacterial beta-galactosidase, whose activity can be detected using a staining reaction, is a commonly used reporter gene, as is green fluorescent protein.

Restriction Enzymesearch for term

A protein that recognizes specific, short nucleotide sequences and cuts DNA at those sites.

Restriction Fragmentsearch for term

A length of DNA whose ends are the result of cutting by a restriction enzyme.

Retrotransposonsearch for term

Retrotransposons are transposable DNA elements (transposons) that employ retroviral-like reverse transcription during the process of transposition: retrotransposon DNA is first transcribed into an RNA template, then reverse transcribed into DNA, and then inserted into a new genomic site.

Retrovirussearch for term

A virus whose primary genetic material is RNA instead of DNA. Replication of the genome of such a virus requires the RNA to be copied into DNA using reverse transcriptase. This RNA serves as a template for the synthesis of a complementary DNA, which may be integrated into the host DNA. This group of viruses includes HIV (AIDS virus).

Reverse Transcriptasesearch for term

An enzyme that is able to synthesize DNA from information in RNA. It requires an RNA template and a DNA or RNA primer.

Reversionsearch for term

A mutation event that alters an allele conferring a mutant phenotype into one conferring a wild-type phenotype. The mutation need not restore the gene to its original nucleotide sequence to be considered a reversion event.

Revertantsearch for term

An individual carrying an allele of a given gene that at one time produced a mutant phenotype, but which since has undergone a subsequent mutation that restored a wild-type phenotype. The mutation need not restore the gene to its original nucleotide sequence to be considered a reversion event.

RFLPsearch for term

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. A genetic polymorphism with respect to the observed length of a restriction fragment. RFLPs can result from single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as from insertions, deletions, or microsatellite expansions.

Ribosomesearch for term

A complex of proteins and RNA within which translation is carried out.

Ribozymesearch for term

An RNA molecule with catalytic activity.

RNAsearch for term

Ribonucleic acid. A nucleic acid that is the primary product of gene expression. Chemically, it differs from DNA by the substitution of ribose for deoxyribose in the sugar-phosphate backbone and by the substitution of the base uracil for thymine. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

RNA Editingsearch for term

The alteration of the sequence of an RNA molecule by enyzmatic modification of individual bases without normal splicing.

RNA Interferencesearch for term

Sequence-specific posttranscriptional gene silencing. It is mediated by 21- and 22-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated by ribonuclease III cleavage from longer dsRNAs.

RNA Polymerasesearch for term

An enzyme that carries out transcription.

RNA Processingsearch for term

Modifications to an RNA molecule after transcription, including splicing, polyadenylation, and editing.

RNAsesearch for term

Ribonuclease. A protein that cleaves the phosphodiester backbone of RNA enzymatically.

RNAse Protectionsearch for term

A method of detecting the presence of a specific RNA in a sample. A radioactively-labeled RNA probe is prepared by transcribing the antisense strand of a DNA construct. The labeled probe is hybridized to the sample. The sample is then treated with RNAse, which is specific to single-stranded RNA. The sample is then subjected to electrophoresis and autoradiography. The presence of full-length probe that has not been cleaved by RNAse indicates the presence of the sense strand, and hence gene expression, in the sample.

Robertsonian Translocationsearch for term

A particular type of translocation in which the breakpoints in the two chromosomes occur at or near the centromere, followed by centric fusion such that the long arms now form a metacentric chromosome with a single centromere. Any small fragments generated in the exchange are usually lost.

rRNAsearch for term

Ribosomal RNA. The RNA molecules that are a structural and catalytic component of the ribosome.

RT-PCRsearch for term

Reverse-Transcription PCR. A method of amplifying mRNA by first synthesizing cDNA with reverse transcriptase, then amplifying the cDNA using PCR. A positive result is evidence of a particular mRNA, and hence of gene expression, in a sample.

Schemasearch for term

1. An underlying organizational pattern or structure; conceptual framework. 2. A collection of items that model part or all of a real world object, particularly in the context of a database, i.e., a database schema. 3. The structure of a database system, described in a formal language supported by the database management system (DBMS). In a relational database, the schema defines the tables, the fields in each table, and the relationships between fields and tables. Schemas are generally stored in a data dictionary. Although a schema is defined in text database language, the term is often used to refer to a graphical depiction of the database structure. 4. In computer science, a description of the logical organization, structure, and content of a database.

SCID Mousesearch for term

Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice like their human counterparts with immunodeficiency diseases are helpless not only to fight infection but also to reject transplanted tissue. These animals lack both T and B-cells and are used extensively in researches of immune disease or tissue transplantation.

Segregating Inbred Strainsearch for term

An inbred strain that is kept in forced heterozygosity for one or more loci. For example, the SM/J strain segregates for an agouti allele and animals are either Aw/a (white bellied agouti) or a/a(black) in color.

Segregationsearch for term

1. The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. 2. The separation of different alleles of the same gene during meiosis.

Semidominantsearch for term

One of a series of terms applied to the phenotypic effect of a particular allele in reference to another allele (usually the standard wild-type allele) with respect to a given trait. An allele "A" is said to be semidominant with respect to the allele "a" if the A/A homozygote has a mutant phenotype, the A/a heterozygote has a less severe phenotype, while the a/a homozygote is wild-type. An example is Pmp22(Tr-J) in mouse. Pmp22(Tr-J)/Pmp22(Tr-J) animals display a myelination defect associated with a "trembler" phenotype, while Pmp22(Tr-J)/Pmp22(+) animals are less severely affected, and Pmp22(+)/Pmp22(+) animals are wild-type.

Sensesearch for term

1. In molecular biology, that strand of a DNA molecule whose sequence is represented in mRNA. 2. In molecular biology, an RNA molecule normally processed into mRNA and translated (rather than the complementary sequence).

Sequencesearch for term

In MGI, a series of nucleotides in RNA or DNA molecules or of amino acids in a protein.

Sequence Annotationsearch for term

Additional information added to genomic sequence to identify genes, delimit the intron and exon structures of those genes, identify regulatory elements, note the positions of allelic variation, etc.

Sequence ID (SeqID)search for term

Sequence accession identifier. A unique alphanumeric character string that unambiguously identifies a sequence record in a database. Examples of MGI genomic sequence providers are NCBI and Ensembl; examples of sequence IDs from these providers are 16590 and ENSMUSG00000053869, respectively.

Sequence Providersearch for term

Whole genome sequencing data from large-scale genome projects. MGI genomic sequence providers are NCBI and Ensembl; examples of sequence IDs from these providers are 16590 and ENSMUSG00000053869, respectively.

Sequencingsearch for term

Determination of the order of nucleotides (base sequences) in a DNA or RNA molecule or the order of amino acids in a protein.

Sex Chromosomesearch for term

Either of two chromosomes that are sexually dimorphic in species with chromosomal (as opposed to genic) sex determination. In mammals, males are the heterogametic sex, having an X chromosome and a Y chromosome, while females are the homogametic sex, having two X chromosomes.

Sex Linkedsearch for term

Located on the X chromosome or the Y chromosome.

Shotgun Sequencingsearch for term

The sequencing of a large DNA segment through the sequencing of randomly-derived subsegments whose order and orientation within the large segment is unknown until the assembly of overlapping sequences. The method works if all positions in the large segment are covered by multiple overlapping subsegments. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Siblingsearch for term

In MGI, this term refers to terms in a hierarchical controlled vocabulary such as those containing Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A "sibling" of a term is a term at the same level of the hierarchy sharing at least one ancestor. For example, the GO term alcohol dehydrogenase GO:0004022] is a sibling to the GO term aldehyde oxidase [GO:0004031]; they share the ancestor term enzyme [GO:0003824].

Similaritysearch for term

1. In comparison of nucleic acid sequences, the extent to which two nucleic acid sequences have identical bases at equivalent positions, usually expressed as a percentage. 2. In comparison of protein sequences, the extent to which the amino acid sequences of two proteins have identical or functionally similar amino acids at equivalent positions, usually expressed as a percentage.

Simple Genotypesearch for term

A genotype involving a single allele pair.

Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR)search for term

A sequence consisting largely of a tandem repeat of a specific k-mer (such as (CA)15). Many SSRs are polymorphic and have been widely used in genetic mapping.

Site-specific Recombinationsearch for term

Reciprocal recombination between specific target sequences catalyzed by a specific recombination enzyme, as opposed to general homologous recombination. One example is recombination at loxP sites catalyzed by Cre recombinase.

Small Interfering RNAsearch for term

21- and 22-nucleotide double-stranded RNAs. These are the mediators of a sequence-specific messenger RNA degradation process known as RNA interference. They are generated by ribonuclease III cleavage from longer dsRNAs.

SNPsearch for term

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. A type of polymorphism in which two chromosomes differ in a given segment by the identity of a single base pair.

Somaticsearch for term

Cells in an animal other than those that constitute the germ line.

Somatic Cell Hybridsearch for term

A type of mapping experiment permitting the assignment of markers to chromosomes. The method consists of fusing cultured cells of one species with cultured cells of a different species. The hybrid cells are unstable in karyotype during growth, with most chromosomes from one species typically being lost. Among clonal populations of hybrid cells following growth, different chromosomes are retained from one species. A panel of hybrid cell cultures can be assayed for which mouse chromosomes (for example) are retained, and simultaneously assayed for the presence of particular markers. The correlation of the presence of a particular marker across the panel with the presence of a particular mouse chromosome allows that marker to be assigned to that chromosome.

Southern Blotsearch for term

An assay that detects specific DNA molecules using a DNA or RNA probe with sequence similarity. Samples are subjected to electrophoresis on a slab gel. A replica of the gel is then made on a membrane by capillary transfer following denaturation. Specific DNA sequences are then detected on the membrane with a radioactively- or chemically-labeled probe. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Spindlesearch for term

The cellular apparatus that directs chromosome movement during cell division in mitosis or meiosis. The spindle is largely composed of microtubules.

Splice Acceptor Sitesearch for term

In the splicing of RNA, the site at the 3' end of an intron.

Splice Donor Sitesearch for term

In the splicing of RNA, the site at the 5' end of an intron.

Splice Junctionsearch for term

In the splicing of RNA, the site of a former intron in a mature mRNA.

Splicingsearch for term

Part of the processing of an RNA transcript into mRNA, in which introns are removed enzymatically.

Spontaneoussearch for term

As a type of mutation, one that has occurred in the absence of any experimental mutagenic treatment, such as irradiation or treatment with chemical mutagens.

SSLPsearch for term

Simple Sequence Length Polymorphism, a type of polymorphism that results from variation in the length of an SSR.

SSRsearch for term

Simple Sequence Repeat, a DNA sequence consisting largely of a tandem repeat of a specific k-mer (such as (CA)15). Many SSRs are polymorphic and have been widely used in genetic mapping.

Stop Codonsearch for term

One of three codons that signal that translation of an RNA sequence should cease.

Strain of Originsearch for term

The strain on which a given allele combination arose.

Structural Genesearch for term

A gene that encodes an enzyme or structural protein, in contrast to a regulatory gene.

Structural Proteinsearch for term

A protein that functions as a structural element of cells rather than as an enzyme, for example, collagen.

STSsearch for term

Sequence Tagged Site. A short segment of unique sequence derived from genomic DNA. A large collection of STSs can be used to assemble a physical map of the genome from a collection of genomic clones (e.g., BACs or YACs) by testing each clone for the presence of each STS. Two clones that contain one or more STSs in common must overlap. For examples, see the physical maps of the mouse genome at MGI.

Subcutaneoussearch for term

Beneath the skin.

Substratesearch for term

A molecule acted upon by an enzyme.

SV40search for term

A small (40 to 45 nm) DNA virus of the genus Polyomavirus, family Papovaviridae; the cause of seemingly inapparent infections in monkeys, especially rhesus, and a common contaminant of monkey cell cultures; the virus may cause inapparent infection in humans and may be excreted in stools of children for several weeks; it can produce fibrosarcoma in suckling hamsters, and transformation may occur in human diploid cells; it may also form "hybrid" virus in cells also infected with certain adenoviruses.

SWISS-PROTsearch for term

A curated protein sequence database. See the SWISS-PROT site for more details.

Symbolsearch for term

As used in MGI, a gene symbol is a unique abbreviation for the gene name or the allele name.

Syngeneicsearch for term

Denoting individuals or tissues that are genetically identical.

Synonymsearch for term

In MGI, a synonym is either an unofficial symbol that has appeared in the scientific literature or in public databases such as GenBank, or a formerly official symbol, withdrawn due to gene family revisions or to conform to the human ortholog symbol.

Syntenysearch for term

The state of being on the same chromosome. A gene is also said to be syntenic to a particular chromosome if it is known to be located on that chromosome but is otherwise unmapped.

System Catalogsearch for term

The data dictionary of a DBMS. The system catalog stores metadata including the schemas of the databases. It is a mini-database, and is usually stored using the DBMS itself in special tables called system tables. It maybe referred to as being "on line", as it is active, and users can query it like any other table.

T-Antigensearch for term

Proteins encoded by the genomes of specific DNA tumor viruses that are associated with the neoplastic transformation of infected cells. T-antigens stimulate the production of antibodies and are immunogenic.

Targeted Mutationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which a chromosomal gene is altered by the substitution of a DNA construct assembled in vitro. In mouse, the constructs are usually designed to eliminate gene function; such targeted mutations are often casually referred to as knock outs. Some DNA constructs are designed to alter gene function; such targeted mutations are often casually referred to as knock ins.

TCR-bsearch for term

Antibody against:TCR-b
Label: purified
Clone: JES052A5
Isotype: rat IgG1
Type: commercial
Source: R&D Cat# MAB417
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: in vivo blocking
Treatment / Staining Regime: 100ug ip
Performance: not determined
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Telomeresearch for term

A specialized structure at the ends of linear chromosomes in eukaryotes. Telomeres confer stability on chromosome ends. Chromosome ends lacking telomeres, such as those generated from interstitial sites by chromosome breaks, are reactive, often fusing with other broken ends to generate chromosome rearrangements. Telomeres also permit the ends of linear chromosomes to replicate fully. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Templatesearch for term

In the process of replication or transcription, the strand of DNA that serves as the source of information.

term2search for term

This is term 2

Termination Codonsearch for term

One of three codons that signal that translation of an RNA sequence should cease.

Testcrosssearch for term

A type of cross in which individuals whose genotype with respect to one or more genes is unknown are crossed to a test strain homozygous for a recessive allele at the genes under study. For example, a cross of an individual that was A/A or A/a (identical in phenotype) to a/a would reveal the genotype of the individual being tested, because if the individual being tested were A/A, all of the progeny would show the dominant phenotype, while if the individual being tested were A/a, half of the progeny would show the dominant phenotype and half would show the recessive phenotype.

Texas Redsearch for term

A fluorescent dye used to label antibodies for immunofluorescence or Western blots.

TGFbsearch for term

Antibody against:TGFb
Label: PE
Clone: 205326
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: R&D Cat# FAB1155P
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2 ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Theiler Stagesearch for term

One of a standard set of stages describing mouse development. See the Table of Theiler stages and the summary Images at Edinburgh.

Thermostablesearch for term

Used to describe an enzyme or other protein that is not denatured at temperatures that denature most other proteins.

Thymine (T)search for term

A pyrimidine base that is a component of nucleotides and thus a normal component of DNA. Uracil replaces thymine in RNA. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

TLR2search for term

Antibody against:TLR2
Label: purified
Clone: 2.34
Isotype: mouse IgG
Type: UCSF MAB core
Source: UCSF
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: depletion
Treatment / Staining Regime: 100 ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

TLR2search for term

Antibody against:TLR2
Label: PE-Cy7
Clone: HL3
Isotype: Hamster IgG
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 558079
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2 ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

TLR2search for term

Antibody against:TLR2
Label: purified
Clone: Cy1.2.4
Isotype: mouse IgG
Type: UCSF MAB core
Source: UCSF
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: depletion
Treatment / Staining Regime: 100 ug i.p.
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

TLR4search for term

Antibody against:TLR4
Label: FITC
Clone: AL-21
Isotype:
Type: commercial
Source: BD Pharmingen cat# 553104
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2 ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

TNFasearch for term

Antibody against:TNFa
Label: PE
Clone: 1D4B
Isotype: rat IgG2a
Type: commercial
Source: eBioscience Cat# 12-1071-81
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.5ug
Performance: good
Information provided by the lab of: Nora Disis

Toxicsearch for term

Having to do with poison or something harmful to the body. Toxic substances usually cause unwanted side effects.

Toxicitysearch for term

The finding of bodily harm due to the poisonous effects of something.

Toxicologysearch for term

Toxicology is the branch of pharmacology that deals with the nature and effects and treatments of poisons.

Traitsearch for term

A trait is a distinct variant of a phenotypic character of an organism that may be inherited, environmentally determined or somewhere in between.

Transcriptsearch for term

An RNA molecule (or species of RNA molecule) that is the product of transcription.

Transcriptionsearch for term

The enzymatic synthesis of an RNA molecule directed by information in a DNA molecule. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Transcriptional Activationsearch for term

The process by which an unexpressed gene is activated to serve as a transcription template for synthesis of RNA.

Transgenesearch for term

Any DNA sequence or combination of sequences that has been introduced via a construct into the germ line of the animal by random integration.

Transitionsearch for term

A type of point mutation in which a purine is substituted for another purine or a pyrimidine for another pyrimidine. These substitutions include A for G, G for A, C for T, or T for C.

Translationsearch for term

The enzymatic synthesis of a protein molecule directed by the information in an mRNA molecule. The mRNA is read from the 5' end to the 3' end, with the protein being synthesized from the amino terminus to the carboxyl terminus. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Translocationsearch for term

A type of mutation in which two nonhomologous chromosomes are each broken and then repaired in such a way that: 1. the resulting chromosomes each contain material from the other chromosome (areciprocal translocation) 2. one of the chromosomes contains an insertion of material from the other chromosome, with the other chromosome containing a deletion (an insertional translocation,) or 3. the two chromosomes, each with breaks near the centromere, fuse to form a single chromosome with a single centromere (a Robertsonian translocation).
See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Transplantationsearch for term

Transference of a tissue or organ within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.

Transpositionsearch for term

1. A type of chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is moved to a different location on the same chromosome, resembling an insertional translocation involving a single chromosome. 2. The movement of a mobile genetic element to a new location.

Transposonsearch for term

A type of mobile genetic element consisting of DNA that moves to new genomic locations conservatively (without replicating itself) or replicatively (moving a copy of itself).

Transversionsearch for term

A type of point mutation in which a purine is substituted for a pyrimidine or a pyrimidine for a purine. These substitutions include C or T for A, C or T for G, A or G for C, and A or G for T.

TrEMBLsearch for term

A protein sequence database that contains all the translations of EMBL nucleotide sequences. See the TrEMBL site for more details.

Trisomysearch for term

The condition of having three chromosomes of a particular type. Down Syndrome in humans is a trisomy for chromosome 21.

tRNAsearch for term

Transfer RNA. Small RNA molecules that bind to the codons of mRNA in the ribosome after being "charged" with amino acids.

Tumorsearch for term

A benign or malignant tissue growth resulting from uncontrolled cell proliferation. Benign neoplastic cells resemble normal cells without exhibiting significant cytologic atypia, while malignant cells exhibit overt signs such as dysplastic features, atypical mitotic figures, necrosis, nuclear pleomorphism, and anaplasia. Representative examples of benign neoplasms include papillomas, cystadenomas, and lipomas; malignant neoplasms include carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, and leukemias.

Tumor suppressor genesearch for term

A tumor suppressor gene, or anti-oncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer. When this gene is mutated to cause a loss or reduction in its function, the cell can progress to cancer, usually in combination with other genetic changes.

Tumorigenesissearch for term

The origin or production, or development of cancer, including carcinomas and other malignant neoplasms.

UCSC Genome Browsersearch for term

The genome browser at the University of California at Santa Cruz.

UniGenesearch for term

An experimental system for automatically partitioning GenBank sequences into a non-redundant set of gene-oriented clusters. Each UniGene cluster contains sequences that represent a unique gene, as well as related information such as the tissue types in which the gene has been expressed and map location. See the UniGene page at NCBI.

Uniparental Disomysearch for term

The inheritance, in a diploid organism, of both copies of a single chromosome from one parent. This may result from the union of a gamete bearing two copies of one chromosome with a gamete bearing no copy of that chromosome, or from the union of a gamete bearing two copies of one chromosome with a normal gamete, followed by the loss of one chromosome through an error in mitosis. Because of imprinting, uniparental disomy can have phenotypic consequences in mammals. See, for example, Prader-Willi Syndrome.

Uracil (U)search for term

A pyrimidine base that is a componentof nucleotides and thus a normal component of RNA. Thymine replaces uracil in DNA. See also the entry at NHGRI's Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.

Vaccinationsearch for term

Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis or treatment.

Vaccinesearch for term

Preparations containing substances with antigenic properties administered to activate the immune system, inducing an immune response. Vaccine ranges from inactivated or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria and viruses), enhanced autologous tumor cells, tumor antigens or epitopes, to peptide cojugated immunotoxins that are used to elicit host immune responses. Vaccines are used for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious diseases and cancer.

Vb12 TCRsearch for term

Antibody against:Vb12 TCR
Label: PE
Clone: M1/70
Isotype: Rat IgG2b
Type: commercial/purified
Source: BD Pharmingen cat#553311
Restrictions on Use:
Used for: FACS
Treatment / Staining Regime: 0.2ug
Performance: 1 log shift over iso
Information provided by the lab of: Ian Frazer

Vectorsearch for term

See Cloning Vector.

VEGAsearch for term

Vertebrate Genome Annotation. The VEGA database is a central repository for high quality, frequently updated, manual annotation of vertebrate finished genome sequence. VEGA developed within Ensembl as a joint project between EMBL-EBI and the Sanger Institute.

Virologysearch for term

The science that deals with the study of viruses.

Virussearch for term

A noncellular biological entity that requires a host cell for reproduction. Viruses consist of a nucleic acid genome that is either DNA or, in the case of retroviruses, RNA. The viral genome is covered with a protein coat; some viruses have a host-derived membrane over the protein coat.

VISTAsearch for term

A suite of programs and databases for comparative analysis of genomic sequences. Users can either submit sequences and alignments for analysis or examine precomputed whole-genome alignments of different species. See the VISTA website.

Western Blotsearch for term

An assay that detects specific proteins within a protein mixture. Samples are subjected to electrophoresis on a slab gel. A replica of the gel is then made on a membrane by electrophoretic transfer. Specific proteins are then detected on the membrane using antibody staining.

Whole-genome Shotgun Sequencingsearch for term

The sequencing of the entire genome of an organism through the sequencing of randomly-derived subsegments whose order and orientation is unknown until the assembly of overlapping sequences is performed computationally. The method works if all positions in the genome are covered by multiple overlapping subsegments.

Wild Typesearch for term

1. The phenotype with respect to a given inherited characteristic that is considered to be the "normal" type commonly found in natural populations. 2. The allele of a particular gene that confers the phenotype considered to be the "normal" type commonly found in natural populations. N.B.: Because some DNA sequence polymorphisms do not produce different phenotypes, there can be multiple "wild-type" alleles of a gene.

Wild Type Allelesearch for term

One of many possible versions of a gene that functions normally, as opposed to versions of a gene that are functionally abnormal (i.e., mutant alleles).

X Chromosomesearch for term

One of pair of chromosomes that is sexually dimorphic in mammals. Normal female mammals have two X chromosomes, while normal male mammals have an X chromosome and a Y chromosome.

X Inactivationsearch for term

The condensation of all but one of the X chromosomes of a mammal into a heterochromatic state, eliminating gene expression from all but the active X chromosome. This process ensures that male and female mammals have the same level of gene activity of X-chromosome genes.

Xenograftsearch for term

A graft transferred from a donor of one species to a recipient of another species.

Xenograft Modelsearch for term

Describes to xenografts (implanting tissue or cell lines from a different species) and allografts (implanting tissue or cell lines form the same species). The grafts are transplanted in immuno-compromised animals where they grow and, depending on the graft material, form tumors.

Y Chromosomesearch for term

One of pair of chromosomes that is sexually dimorphic in mammals. Normal female mammals have two X chromosomes, while normal male mammals have an X chromosome and a Y chromosome.

YACsearch for term

Yeast Artificial Chromosome.

Zinc Finger Domainsearch for term

The Zinc Finger Domain is found in many proteins that bind nucleic acids, typically DNA binding transcription factors. There are several classes of Zn finger proteins. Some bind Zn with only Cys residues (e.g., nuclear receptor superfamily) while others coordinate Zn with Cys and His residues. In the 25-amino acid C2H2 type motif, Zn2+ is held between a pair of anti-parallel beta strands and a single alpha helix by a pair of invariant Cys and His residues. The Cys/His type proteins generally contain repeated units and bind DNA as a monomer, while Cys/Cys proteins contain two units that bind inverted DNA repeats as homo- or heterodimers. In some Cys/Cys types the Zn ion folds the involved region into a globular structure that binds DNA.

Zinc Finger Nucleasesearch for term

Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are artificial restriction enzymes generated by fusing a zinc finger DNA-binding domain to a DNA-cleavage domain. Zinc finger domains can be engineered to target desired DNA sequences which enables zinc-finger nucleases to target unique sequence within a complex genome. By taking advantage of endogenous DNA repair machinery, these reagents can be used to precisely alter the genomes of higher organisms.